Unit 5 gov

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Political participation
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Terms in this set (111)
Voting Rights Act of 1965a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage; no literacy testsPoll taxA requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to voteVoter turnout (what impacts it)work schedules; convenience; mindset/intensity; age; mobilization; socio-economic status; educational attainment; candidatesPolitical efficacyThe belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a differencePolitical mobilizationefforts by political parties to encourage their members to voteAbsentee ballotOne that allows a person to vote without going to the polls on Election DayRational choice votingvoting based on what a citizen believes is in his or her best interestRetrospective votingvoting for a candidate because you like his or her past actions in office, incumbencyProspective votingvoting based on the imagined future performance of a candidateParty-line votingvoting based solely on partyElectoral collegeA group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice presidentWinner-take-all systemAn electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituenciesBattleground statea state where the polls show a close contest between the Republican and Democratic candidate in a presidential electionSwing statesimilar number of registered voters between republican and democrat (does not account for intensity)Get Out the Votecampaign to mobilize votersSuper Paca type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates; "this ad is not endorsed by any candidate"Citizens United v FECA 2010 decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that independent expenditures are free speech protected by the 1st Amendment and so cannot be limited by federal law; corporations are peopleNational Voter Registration Act/ Motor Voter Lawa law passed in 1993 to increase citizen participation and to alleviate the burden of having to make a special effort to vote. The law requires states to offer citizens a chance to register at state-run agencies, such as the bureau of motor vehicles.Political PartyA group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policyParty in Electoratethe voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the partyParty in Governmentall of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a political partyParty OrganizationThe formal structure and leadership of a political party, including election committees; local, state, and national executives; and paid professional staff.Party Identificationa citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the otherStraight Ticket Votingpractice of voting for candidates of only one party in an electionSplit Ticket Votingvoting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same electionParty Platformthe statement of policies of a national political partyParty Coalitionthe groups and interests that support a partyNew Deal CoalitionAlliance of southern conservatives, religious, and ethnic minorities who supported the Democratic Party for 40 years (FDR new deal)RealignmentA process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a long-term change in the political landscape.Critical ElectionsAn electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Such periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era.Party ErasHistorical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections.Era of Divided Governmenttime period during which most of the U.S. government has been divided, starting in 1968 with Nixon's election and lasting until the presentNominationThe official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party. Generally, success in the nomination game requires momentum, money, and media attention.DelegateA person appointed or elected to represent othersInvisible PrimaryThe period before any votes are cast when candidates compete to win early support from the elite of the party and to create a positive first impression of their leadership skills.Primary Electionan election held to choose candidates for officeOpen v. closed primariesA closed primary election is one in which voters choose from candidates only from the party in which they are registered. This differs from an open primary in that an open primary allows a voter to cast his/her vote within whichever contest (Democrat, Republican, etc.) the voter choosesCaucusmeeting where voters express their opinions on candidates; lower turnout due to length and schedulingSuper delegateparty leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucusesFront loadingthe tendency of states to choose an early date on the nomination calendarNational ConventionThe meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.Candidate Centered Campaigna trend in which candidates develop their own strategies and raise money with less influence from the party elite ( mostly rich ppl / kanye )Two Party SystemA political system dominated by two major partiesProportional RepresentationAn election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.Single Member Plurality SystemElectoral system that assigns one seat in a legislative body to represent citizens who live in a defined area (a district) based on which candidate wins the most votes.Third PartyA political party organized in opposition to the major parties in a two-party system12th AmendmentBrought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.Electoral Count ActIf the results of a state's elections are certified for more tan 6 days before electoral college votes are read then congress cant change it; spells out how to object to a state's election processMcGovern Fraser Commissioncommission formed because there was no way for an ordinary citizen to have any meaningful participation in choosing a delegate because of the party boss (series of reforms)Federal Election Campaign ActA law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.Bipartisan Campaign Reform ActBanned soft money donations to political parties (loophole from FECA); also imposed restrictions on 527 independent expenditures (issue ads only, not direct advocacy for a candidate). Declared unconstitutional by Citizens United case. Also known as McCain-Feingold Act.Soft moneyCampaign contributions unregulated by federal or state law, usually given to parties and party committees to help fund general party activities.Dark Moneypolitical money where the donors of the money do not have to be disclosedModern CampaignThe process where presidential candidates actually travel the country and meet the people who shall be voting.Interest groupsGroups of people who work together for similar interests or goalsBrick and mortar v. onlinebrick and mortar are all old, rich, white men while online are young, working class, minorities and a little more controversia and polarizingPotential GroupAll the people who might be interest group members because they share some common interest.Actual GroupThe people in the potential group who actually join.Solidary Incentivesthe social rewards (sense of pleasure, status, or companionship) that lead people to join political organizationsEconomic Incentivesselected benefits for joining an interest groupPurposive Incentivesideological moral satisfactionSocial movementsA large group of people who are organized to promote or resist some social changeParticipatory Democracydemocracy emphasizing individual participationPluralismdemocracy emphasizing interest groupsPolicy agendaThe issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.Collective ActionHow groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and to cooperateCollective goodsGoods and services, such as clean air and clean water, that by their nature cannot be denied to anyone.Free riderspeople who benefit from the group but give little in returnSelective benefitsgoods that a group can restrict to those who actually joinTypes of Interest groupseconomic, environmental, equity/civil rights, consumer protection (goods/public goods)LobbyingA strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.ElectioneeringDirect group involvement in the electoral process, for example, by helping to fund campaigns, getting members to work for candidates, and forming political action committees.Revolving doorEmployment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.Amicus curiae briefLiterally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.Iron triangleThe three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests.Issue networkRelationships among interest groups; branch off of the iron triangleGrassroots campaignA run for office that emphasizes volunteer efforts, person-to-person contact, and voter organization rather than paid advertising, extensive polling, and other costly activities managed by a central staff.Civil disobedienceA nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.News mediamedia providing the public with new information about subjects of public interestMass MediaForms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.Broadcast Mediatelevision and radioNew Medianew technologies, such as the internet, that blur the line between paid and free media sourcesHorse Race JournalismElection coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues.Yellow JournalismJournalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readersMuckrakingthe action of searching out and publicizing scandalous information about famous people in an underhanded way.Partisan Biasthe slanting of political news coverage in support of a particular political party or ideologyConfirmation Biasa tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidenceNet Neutralitythe principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.Media ConsolidationThe trend toward a few large corporations owning most of the media outlets in the country.Telecommunications Act 1996the sweeping update of telecommunications law that led to a wave of media consolidationAgenda SettingDetermining which public-policy questions will be debated or considered.Narrowcastingtargeting media programming at specific populations within society, confirmation bias, divided along party linesWire Servicean electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service's correspondents and sent to all member news media organizationsAssociated Press (AP)largest wire serviceJournalistic Standards/Ethicsprofessional norms and integrity; code of ethics regarding avoiding conflicts of interest and verifying information; dealing with sources and doing deep backgroundPress Releaseofficial written document sent out to the pressPress Briefingpress secretary represents official with a verbal press release following with a Q&A on the topicPress Conferencegeneral Q&A with officialInfotainmentBlend of information and entertainment, Reach larger audiences and humanize politicians, Assumes a level of audience sophisticationCitizen JournalismOrdinary individuals who collect, post, analyze things Amateur reporting, lack of objectivity, quality variesTalking Heads/ expertsfill air time, former politicians or consultants, supposed to be objective but actually lack objectivity