Chapter 18 Physical Science

What does element copper combine with on the Statue of Liberty?
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True or False: The properties of a compound can be very different from those of its component elementsTrueWhat do electron dot diagrams contain?chemical symbol with dots surrounding it representing the valence electronsWhen is an atom chemically stable?When its outer energy level is fullAtoms with unstable outer energy levels can _________________________ to become stablelose, gain, or share electronsVocab: the force that holds atoms together in a compoundchemical bondVocab: an atom or charged particle that has gained or lost an electronionWhat is an atom that loses electrons?cationDoes a cation have a positive or negative charge?positiveWhat is an atom that gains electrons?anionDoes a anion have a positive or negative charge?negativeSome of the most common compounds are made by the loss or gain of how many electrons?oneWhy is iodized salt an important dietary source of iodine?It helps prevent goiter, which is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neckWhat does superscript mean?written aboveVocab: the force of attraction between the opposite charges of the ions in an ionic compoundionic bondThe number of positive charges must ______________ the number of negative charges in order to form a neutral compoundequalWhy are ionic compounds neutral?the sum of the charges on the ions is zeroIonic compounds are usually what? (5 things)1) usually between metals & nonmetals 2) formed by elements across the periodic table 3) typically crystalline solids 4) typically have high melting points 5) hold their electrons tightlyWhy are group 14 elements unlikely to lose or gain electrons?They would have to lose or gain four electrons to become stable, which takes up a lot of energyThe loss of many electrons takes a great deal of ___________energyEach time an electron is removed, the nucleus holds the remaining electrons __________________even more tightlyVocab: the attraction that forms between atoms when they share electronscovalent bondVocab: the neutral particle that forms as a result of electron sharingmoleculeWhat is a single covalent bond composed of?two shared electronsWhat is a double bond?when two pairs (each element shares 2 total electrons) of electrons are shared between two elementsWhat is a triple bond?a bond that contains three pairs of shared electronsCovalent bonds are normally what? (3 things)1) between two nonmetals 2) solids or gases at room temperature 3) hold their electrons looselyWhat is the result of a covalent bond between 2 similar or identical atoms?the electron charge is shared equally across the bondVocab: a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally by both atomsnonpolar bondWhy aren't electrons always shared equally?Different types of atoms exert different levels of attraction for the electrons in a covalent bondWhat are factors of the strength of the attraction of each atom to its electrons? (3 things)1) size of the atom 2) charge of the nucleus 3) total number of electrons the atom containsDoes a nucleus have a stronger attraction to electrons nearby or further away?nearbyMore positive charge in a nucleus attracts electrons more ________________stronglyWhat is represented by a lower-case Greek letter delta with a negative superscript? (δ⁻)a partial negative chargeWhat is represented by a lower-case Greek letter delta with a positive superscript? (δ⁺)a partial positive chargeVocab: a bond in which electrons are shared unequally, resulting in a slightly positive end and a slightly negative endpolar bondThe electrons will be held more closely to the atom with the ______________ pullstrongerVocab: one in which the unequal sharing of electrons results in a slightly positive end and a slightly negative end, although the overall molecule is neutralpolar moleculeVocab: a molecule that does not have oppositely charged endsnonpolar moleculeTrue or False: If a molecule is nonpolar, that means its electrons are all shared equallyFalse: The polarity of the bonds and the shape of the molecule determines whether the molecule is polar or nonpolarTrue or False: Polar bonds can be found in nonpolar moleculesTrueIn molecules with a single bond, polarity is determined by what?the bondIn molecules with multiple bonds, polarity is determined by what?the shape of the molecule and the polarity of each of the bondsVocab: a positive or negative number that indicates how many electrons an atom has gained, lost, or shared to become stableoxidation numberFor ionic compounds, the oxidation number is _______________ as the charge of the ionthe sameWhat is the oxidation number for group 1?1+What is the oxidation number for group 2?2+What is the oxidation number for the boron group?3+What is the oxidation number for the carbon group?4+What is the oxidation number for the nitrogen group?3-What is the oxidation number for the oxygen group?2-What is the oxidation number for the halogens?1-What is the oxidation number for noble gases?0What is the oxidation number of transition elements expressed in?the name with a roman numeralVocab: a compound composed of two elementsbinary compoundWhat are the easiest compounds to write formulas for?binary compoundsWhat elements have positive oxidation numbersall metals + often hydrogenWhat elements have negative oxidation numbers?nonmetals + hydrogen when bonded to a metalDo you reduce the subscripts if able to in an ionic compound? covalent compound?ionic - yes; covalent - noMany common compounds contain _________________ atomsmore than twoVocab: a positively or negatively charged, covalently bonded group of atomspolyatomic ionTrue or False: Pairs of nonmetals can only form one compound with each otherFalse: some can form many compounds with each otherScientists use ________ prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element are in a binary covalent compoundGreekonemonotwodithreetrifourtetrafivepentasixhexasevenheptaeightoctaninenonatendecaVocab: a compound that has water chemically attached to its atoms and written into its chemical formulahydrateWhen cobalt chloride evaporates, what is formed?pink crystals that contain 6 water molecules for each unit of cobalt chlorideWhat is the formula for cobalt chloride hexahydrate?CoCl₂・6H₂OHow can you remove water from the crystalls?Heating them upWhat is the result of the heated-up cobalt chloride hexahydrate?a anhydrous blue compoundWhat does anhydrous mean?without waterWhat is gypsum made out of?calcium sulfate dihydrateWhat is gypsum used in?building materialsWhat type of elements hold their electrons tightly? (metal or nonmetal)nonmetalsWhat type of elements hold their electrons loosely? (metal or nonmetal)metals