Chapter 3: Cells and Tissues (Test 2)

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4 Types of Tissue in the Human Body
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified Columnar
Stratified Cuboidal
Stratified Squamous
Simple Columnar
Simple Cuboidal
Simple Squamous
Stratified
Layered
Simple
Single Layer
Simple Columnar
Function: barrier, absorption, and secretion
Location: lining of stomach, small intestines, and colon, gallbladder
Simple Cuboidal
Function: barrier, absorption
Location: ovary, kidney tubules
Simple Squamous
Function: barrier, flood exchange, lubrication, transepithelial transport
Location: lining body cavities (thoracic, pericardial, abdominal), kidney
Stratified Columnar
Function: barrier, conduit
Location: sweat gland, ducts of exocrine glands, anorectal junction
Stratified Cuboidal
Function: barrier, conduit
Location: sweat gland, ducts of exocrine glands, anorectal junction
Stratifie Squamous
Function: barrier, protection
Location: wet surfaces: oral cavity, esophagus, and vagina
Pseudostratified
Function: secretion, conduit
Location: trachea and bronchi, deferens, efferent ductules of epididymis
Columnar
column shape
Cuboidal
cube shape
Squamous
flat shape
transitional
ability to stretch located in the bladdar
Connective Tissues
areolar
adipose
fibrous
bone
cartilage
blood
hematopoietic
areolar
loose arrangement of fibers and cells
Location: between other tissues and organs
Function: connection
adipose
cells contain
Location: area under skin and padding at various points
Function: protection and insulation; support; nutrient reserve
fibrous
dense arrangement of collagen fiber bundles
Location: tendons, ligament, fascia, and scar tissue
Function: flexible but strong connection
bone
hard, calcified matrix arranged in osteons
Location: skeleton
Function: support and protection
cartilage
hard but flexible matrix with embedded chondrocytes
Location: part of nasal septum; area covering articular surfaces of bones; larynx; rings in trachea and bronchi; disks between vertebrae; external ear
Function: firm but flexible support, withstand pressure
blood
liquid matrix with flowing red and white cells
Location: blood vessels
Function: transportation
Hematopoietic
liquid matrix with dense arrangement of blood cell-producing cells
Location: red bone marrow
Function: blood cell formation
Muscle Tissue
Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth
Skeletal
long , threadlike cells with multiple nuclei and striations
Location: muscles that attach to bones; eyeball muscles; and upper third of esophagus
Function: maintenance of posture; movement of bones; eye movements; involved in helping swallow
cardiac
branching, interconnected cylinders with faint striations
Location: wall of heart
Function:contraction of heart
Smooth
threadlike cells with single nuclei and no striations
Location: walls of blood vessels, large lymphatic vessels; ducts of gland; iris and ciliary body of eye; arrector muscles of hairs; walls of tubular visca of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts
Function: movement of substances, changing diameter of vessels, change in shape and diameter of lense, erection of hairs
Nervous Tissue
characterized by cell body and two processes axon and dendrites
two types of cells; neurons, glia
axon
transmits nerve impulse away from cell body
dendrites
carry impulses toward cell body
neurons
nerve cells
functional or conducting units of systems
glia
special connecting and supporting cells
Haversian Canal
a microscopic channel in bone, through which a blood vessel runs
Osteocyte
A branched cell embedded in the matrix of bone tissue.
Types of Cartilage
Hyaline
Fibrous
Elastic
Chondrocyte
A connective tissue cell that occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix. Also called a cartilage cell.
Intercalated Discs
the lines that separate each cardiac cell and make them beat in sync