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Consolidating the Revolution

Chapter 7
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Anti-Federalists
rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They advocated a governmental structure that granted power to the states.
Antidisestablishmentarianism
The movement in opposition to the disbanding of formal ties between government and religion.
-proved especially formidable in New England. Whereas most states broke all government ties with religion shortly after the Declaration of Independence, the Congregational Church continued collecting tithes (taxes) in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Massachusetts well into the nineteenth century.
Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles were the document that established the United States of America. The Articles granted few powers to the central government and left most powers up to the individual states. The result was a weak, rather ill-defined state. The Articles were replaced by the Constitution in 1789
Bicameral
Name for a legislative system composed of two complementary houses
Bill of Rights
Though the Anti-federalists were not able to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did make progress in ensuring that the Bill of Rights would be created. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, was the collection of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Checks and Balances
The Constitution set forth a government composed of 3 branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial. Each branch was given certain powers over the others to ensure that no one branch usurped a dangerous amount of power. This system, known as checks and balances, represented the solution to the problem of how to empower the central government, yet protect against corruption and despotism.
Congress
The bicameral legislative body set up by the Connecticut Compromise. The two houses of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives, accorded to both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan, in that membership numbers in the House were determined by state population, and representatives in the Senate were fixed at two per state.
Connecticut Compromise
Ending weeks of stalemate, the Connecticut Compromise reconciled the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for determining legislative representation in Congress. The Connecticut Compromise established equal representation for all states in the Senate and proportional representation by population in the House of Representatives.
Constitution
...
Newburgh, NY 1783
location of a continental army camp where delegation was sent from to complain about the benefits needed from service in the Revolution
Newburgh Conspiracy
1783
When Congress told the New York army to disband after they hadn't been paid, an anonymus letter circulated among the officers, calling for more direct action against Congress if needs weren't met; Washington was sent to pacify situation.
Philadelphia 1783
Several hundred disgruntled continental soldiers and militiamen gathered in the front of Independence Hall
result of Philadelphia 1783?
Congress fled to Princeton, NJ
-agreed to issue 3 months' pay until they could be formally discharged
Land Ordinance of 1785
-provided for the systematic survey and sale of region west of PA and north of OH River
-area was to be laid out in townships
significance of Land Ordinance of 1785?
-set precedent of rectangular gird pattern of land survey and settlement
-characterizes the Midwest and distinguished it so markedly from the irregular settlement patterns of the older, colonial areas to the east
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
-provided for the political organization of the same interior region
-prohibited importation of new slaves into the region
Land Ordinances impact?
-represented a dramatic change from the days of England's colonial administration
-seeking to restrain white settlement (parliament) vs. central government sought ways to promote expansion via land laws and Amerindian policies
-colonies wouldn't remain colonies subordinate to imperial power, but fully incorporated in expanding nation
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
1784
the first treaty between the newly independent government and an Amerindian tribe, Six Nations officially made peace, ceded most of their lands to the US, and retreated to small reservations
Opening the West:
Amerindians?
-treated as people who aided the losing British and were now under American control
Utmost Good Faith Clause
clause within the Northwest Ordinance of 1787;
the US government committed to just, constant practices in their Amerindian policies
Congressional inability to open the interior to white settlement alarmed:
speculators
famers
revolutionary soldiers
John Jay
Congressional secretary of foreign affairs
-offered to relinquish American claims to free transmit of the river in return for a commercial treaty opening Spanish Louisanan ports to American shipping
cause for Jay Treaty?
Spain closed ports to American shipments, outraging dependent settlers on getting their produce to ocean vessels
Jay Treaty
offered to relinquish American claims to free transmit of the river in return for a commercial treaty opening Spanish Louisanan ports to American shipping
Robert Morris 1781
appointed by Congress as superintendent of finance
-given broad authority to deal with national debt
Robert Morris policy?
-urged states to stop issuing paper money
-persuaded Congress to demand that the states pay their requisitions in hard money
-persuaded Congress to charter the Bank of North America
-took steps to made federal bond more attractive to investors
Robert Morris 1784
resigned
-despair over government's financial situation
-recoup personal fortunes
evaluate:
Hostile Atlantic World
Congress's difficulties dealing with its creditors and failure to counter Spain's closure of Mississippi pointed to a broader problem in American foreign relations
why the Hostility of the Atlantic World?
-Europe continued to harbor imperial ambitions in North America
-the US was new, weak, and republican in an Atlantic world dominated by strong, monarchial governments and divided into exclusive, warring empires
-the US lacked the political unity and the economic muscle to protect essential interest
why France was an uncertain friend?
-imperial power with an absolute monarchy
-feared colonial rebellion
-regarded republicanism as subversive
-efforts to manipulate the peace process for its own advantage taught America about the power politics
Britain during Post-Revolution
-goods from UK were highly desired in the US and sucked the money out of US
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Sources of Political Conflicts
-Church vs. State
-Slavery
-Politics vs. Economy
Separating Church and State
Pressures built for severing all ties between church and state
-History shows that an alliances between governmental and church authorities brought about religious oppression
-voluntary choice was the only safe basis for religious association
-Supporters of religious freedom were not prepared to extend it universally, specifically not towards Catholics.
Separating Church and State
Virginia
-Baptists pressed their cause against Protestant Episcopal Church
-1786: adopted TJ's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom
Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom
written by Thomas Jefferson
-rejected all connections between church and state
-removed all religious tests for the public office
development of
Slavery Under Attack
-revolutionary principles
-a reduced need for field hands in the depressed Chesapeake tobacco economy
-the continuing national increase among the slave population
-anxiety over black rebellion argued for the slave trade's permanent extinction
Ending the Slave Trade
(implications)
-reduced the infusion of new Africans into the black population
-even higher proportion of blacks was American born, thus speeding up the cultural transformation by which Africans became African Americans
Slavery During the Revolution
-catchphrases that called for liberty apparently were not applied to 20% of the population that were in chains.
-Southern states and their economy thrived on the slave trade and the free labor it brought
Battle of Wabash
11/04/1791
single biggest loss of the US army at the hands of the Iroquois Confederacy
Significance:
Battle of Wabash
-parallel to F/I war?
-in worse shape than UK following F/I war
-Amerindians supplied by UK
Battle of Fallen Timbers
8/20/1794
took place in fallen timber area (windstorm?)
Shawnee Confederacy funded by UK fort Detroit
US won
Significance:
Battle of Fallen Timbers
leads to Greenville Treaty
Major General A. St. Clair
presided over biggest lost of the US army at the hands of the Iroquois
General Mad Anthony Wayne
fought Battle of Quebec and Saratoga
-fought at Battle of Fallen Timbers
Treaty of Greenville
1795
Amerindians realize lack of support must be pacified with treaty
Significance:
Treaty of Greenville
-Amerindians to cede if their hunting privileges maintained (major)
-US govt recognizes Amerindians rights to claim land
Annapolis Convention
1786
Five states send conference to Maryland
-Washington presence will validate
-Constitutional Convention
-Shay's Rebellion raised concern
Significance:
Annapolis Convention
agreed to make another convention in a year's time to improve Articles of Confederation if needed
Continental Impost
1781/1783
proposed tarriffs on imports (nationalist idea) to raise revenue for the post-war economy in debt
Significance:
Continental Impost?
shows the shortcomings of the Articles and the Continental Congress
Shay's Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
grid system
pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another
Metes and Bounds
A method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land
Blue Jacket
Shawnee chief defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
continental currency
when Congress needed money for financing the war, they turned to the idea of printing more paper money, which was done by printing presses in many states, but the high inflation caused the money to be worthless.
Whiskey Rebellion
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Society of Cincinnati
An elite group of Continental Army who formed an exclusive hereditary order. It was ridiculed by most Americans for its lordly pretensions.
Virginia Plan
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states
New Jersey Plan
plan presented as an alternative to the Virginia plan at the Constitutional Convention; called for a unicameral legislature in which each State would be equally represented
Three-Fifths Compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Great Compromise
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
Federalist Papers
1789
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
fear of the mob
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bank bill
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Tariff of 1792
1792
excise taxes on carriages, auctions, manufactured goods, and sugar to compensate for expenses.
Whiskey Tax
1794
added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt., Part of the excise taxes, the whiskey tax added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt.
first party system
1792
The federalist party and its opposing republican party competed for control of the presidency. Republican party was made because people saw the federalists as gaining too much power.
Republican Societies
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Citizen Genet
French ambassador in US, went around country trying to recruit Americans to fight for French w/o consent of US govt
-kicked out for allowing French warship into Philadelphia, no longer French ambassador in America
Election of 1804
Thomas Jefferson was the odds-on favorite to be reelected in 1804, gaining widespread popularity through the Louisiana Purchase, the repeal of the excise tax on whiskey and by standing up to the Barbary pirates. The president dropped Aaron Burr as his running mate, perhaps unfairly believing that Burr had tried to steal the presidency from him in 1800. A group of New England Federalists known as the Essex Junto (many lived in Essex County north of Boston) began scheming in advance of the election. incumbent Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Election of 1808
the Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Madison had served as United States Secretary of State under incumbent Thomas Jefferson, and Pinckney had been the unsuccessful Federalist candidate in the election of 1804.
French American Settlement
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barbary pirates
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
Treaty of 1778
1778
formed between America and France. In return for backing America in the war with resources such as goods, and capital, America agreed to recognize France's claim to the West Indies. No agreement for France's actually gain for taking part in the Alliance would come until after the war was over and America was secure from Britain. The treaty is important because without the support of France, America would have never obtained the capabilities necessary for winning the war. France hoped to weaken Britain by its loss of the American colonies. French were persuaded to support the colonies after the victory at Saratoga. Both parties agreed that they would continue to fight until American Independence was won and neither would conclude a truce or peace without the formal consent of the other and France bound itself neither to seek Canada nor other British possessions on the mainland of North America. It was signed along with the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, in which France recognized the new US country and offered trade concessions, including important privileges in American shipping.
Necessary and Proper Elastic Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its given powers
first report on the public credit
written by Alexander Hamilton which declared that the federal government would assume the debts of the individual states. Hamilton believed that these debts would not only give the public confidence in the federal government, but would also emotionally bind them to the government out of a sense of loyalty and gratitude. Since some southern states already paid off their debts, they would receive no benefit from this assumption. The plan offered to put a new national capital in the south, which would eventually become Washington D.C. IT was also to assume the confederation's debts at par, which meant that interest would be included when the debt was paid. Felt that national debt would give the citizens unity and a sense of respect for the government. Third, wanted a national bank, based after band of England, which provided strong institution that printed and circulated paper money.
Non-intercourse Act
1809
forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Embargo Act
1807
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Chesapeake-Leopard Incident
1807
the US Chesapeake was stopped in the mid-Atlantic by the British Leopard. The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy, in which the Chesapeake's commanding officer, James Barron, refused, resulting in British attack. Barron relented and the men were seized
Southwestern Confederacy
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Burr Conspiracy
Scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
Santo Domingo
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impeachment
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
midnight appointment
John Adams appointed US Judges including supreme court justice before leaving office
12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Kentucky Resolutions
These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
Sedition Act
1798
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Naturalization Act
1798
act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years
Alien Act
Allowed the President to remove any foreigner from the country who was thought to be dangerous. Immigrants had to live in America 14 years before being able to vote. Most immigrants were Democratic Republicans, so this kept them from voting for a long time.
Alien Enemies Act
authorized the president to apprehend and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United States of America; the act remains intact today; At the time, war was considered likely between the U.S. and France.
XYZ Affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Department of the Navy
An American navy was ceased to exist at the end of the Revolution, but in 1794 Congress authorized the arming of six ships. Three of them: the Constitution, the United States, and the Constellation were completed in 1797. The official Department of the Navy was created in 1798, and by the end of 1799 the number of ships had increased to 33. American ships had also captured 8 French vessels and provided secure passage for American commerce.
Quasi War
- Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Proclamation of Neutrality
1793
Washington declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to warring countries.
Pinckney Treaty
1795
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
impressment
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Election of 1796
The person with the most electoral votes, John Adams, became President and the person with the second most electoral votes, Thomas Jefferson, became Vice President. A problem from this situation was that Adams and Jefferson belonged to different political parties, so political tensions were strong in the Executive Branch. In modern elections, presidential candidates choose their vice presidential candidates to run with them, so the situation in 1796 could not occur.