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ASB101 Exam 3
Terms in this set (142)
What two technological advances are responsible for the explosion of indo-european speakers throughout Eurasia?
domestication of the horse, and invention of the wheel and cart
What are five important traits of emerging civilizations?
Writing and record keeping
High levels of economic specialization
Monumental architecture, public structures
High levels of wealth stratification
Strong centralized government
Where did the first civilization of the world emerge? How large was the Sumerian city of Ur 5,000 years ago?
Sumeria, mesopotamia 5500 bp
more than 50,000 inhabitants.
Know the 10 traits that characterized Sumeria.
Several walled cities with Ur as capital
Calendar and Number system
Wheeled wagons, chariots, the plow, and sailboats
Various classes of citizens
Regions conquered in warfare paid tribute in goods and slaves.
What kinds of things are most typical topics of earliest writing?
inventories, taxes, and history to recipes and love poems.
What are some modern holdovers from the original Sumerian 12 based number system?
12 based number system gave rise to our modern time measures of a day (two 12 hr periods).
What is the date of Hamurabi's code? What is the most common punishment for violation of a rule of the state?
1750 BC, an eye for an eye
What are some of the technologies of the earliest Mesopotamian states that allowed them to conquer surrounding populations?
What is a gruesome but typical grave good buried with wealthy and important rulers?
What is the epic of Gligamesh? When was it written?
fascinating stories including the epic of Gilgamesh who was ruler of the city of Urak about 4700 ya.
When did civilization first emerge in Egypt and what are 6 of its traits?
Writing on rolls woven from papyrus
Farmed seasonal floodplains
No really large cities
Where and when was the Harrapan civilization and what are its 8 notable traits? What group of people emerged as the loosers when the Harrapan culture was conquered by the Persians?
Pakistan and India 5300- 3550 bp
Farmed floodplains of Indus River valley.
Cities built on same grid plan, water and sewage systems
Standardized brick units
The beginnings of Hinduism
Lots of trade with Mesopotamia
Independent and untranslated form of picture writing
Had no horses
Where do we find the first multi-ethnic state?
When did civilization first emerge on the Yellow river in China? When did the Chinese invent their form of picture writing?
When was the great Wall of China completed?
around 2,000 bp
What are four things missing from the Americas but found in other civilizations?
large domestic animal
true writing (phonetic)
metal for tools and weapons
When and where was the first civilization in the New World? What was the first civilization in North America (including Mexico)?
Chavin, Peru 3750-2850 bp
Olmec in Veracruz, Mexico ~3,400 bp
Know some of the features of states that arose independently in many places around the world.
similar styles of architecture
invent taxes, slavery, written laws, calendars
What is the theory about where states arose that is outlined in the notes? Why do I call them "institutionalized protection rackets"?
When populations have no attractive neighboring areas to escape to they can be controlled and defended.
They extract tribute and threaten destruction if it is not paid.
Why didn't people in the regions of early despotic civilizations simply escape to other areas?
People eventually value the public goods enough that they desire rulers
What do states do in order to ensure that defending the territory and resources that they hold will not be made costly by repeated rebellions?
Many states practice extreme punishments for crimes of rebellion that are designed to "make an example"of the offender.
What factor correlates strongly with the emergence of representative democracy?
When did English nobles force King John to sign the Magna Carta, transferring the authority of rule as an absolute right, from the King to the laws of the land?
What is culture. What is a cultural variant?
information transmitted by social learning that produces behavioral patterns
information or beliefs that get transmitted through social learning
What kinds of information is socially transmitted?
Learning that consists of a human model and learner who learns by exposure
What are the two common types of social learning that contrast with individual learning?
environment and experience, by trial and error or by deduction, but without observing other individuals.
Why is culture able to evolve (two properties that combined allow evolution)?
Variation + heritability + differential replication
Why is culture a biological trait?
The ability, desire and tendency to engage in social learning all evolved
What is Dual Inheritance Theory?
Human evolution is the product of dual inheritances: genes and culture
What does phylogenetic analyses of behavioral traits in humans show?
shows clumping that significantly follows the known phylogenetic history of different groups
What does the distribution of salsa consumption in the US suggest about cultural transmission?
Proximity to Mexico = how much salsa consumed, social learning
Why do some scientists refer to different groups of chimpanzees as "cultures"?
They have local clustering of socially learned traits
What is the recent evidence that chimpanzees learn quite efficiently through imitation of others?
feeding techniques could sometimes be transmitted through individuals in a captive chimpanzee colony
Why do we say that humans "over-imitate" compared to chimpanzees?
Chimps do only what is necessary to get a reward and eliminate behaviors aren't connected to the reward
What cultural feature is found only in humans?
Why does the unique human social structure of bilateral kin recognition make it more likely that cumulative cultural capacity could evolve?
humans observe hundreds or thousands of adults in a lifetime - chimps are likely to only observe a dozen or so.
What are the three types of cultural transmission?
Vertical, Horizontal, and Oblique
What are 4 observed cultural transmission biases, that affect the probability of different cultural variants spreading?
Success biased transmission: imitating cultural variants that appear successful
Prestige biased transmission: imitating traits of those who are highly regarded
Conformity biased transmission: imitating what is most frequent in a population
What are the three major components of human culture and which one is found in animals as well as humans?
Traditions, norms/laws/morals, religion/ritual/ethnicity
What are the five types of behavior regulated by social norms, that we discussed in lecture. Know an example of each.
Third party punishment (gossip)
Mate access (who marries who)
Resource access (niche specialization & tool use)
Food redistrubution (prescribed sharing)
Display rights (mating displays, other socio-political messages)
What are the two things that socially transmitted symbolic displays are designed to accomplish in humans?
Ethnicity and ritual
What 3 conditions will lead to the emergence of ethnic signaling?
Advantage to interaction with others sharing same norms
Social universe large enough to contain others who follow one's own rule system, but are not known personally
Some interaction with groups that do not follow one's own rule system
What is the major adaptive force in humans but no other species on earth?
How can culture affect biological evolution? Why is cooking a good example?
Cultural evolution of cooking changed selection pressures on gut size and digestive enzymes which then lead to further changes in cooking patterns.
What do we mean by "niche construction"?
Changes in the environment due to a species activity leads to new phenotypic outcomes and selection pressures that result in evolution.
What force have many anthropologists assumed is behind both socioeconmic stratification and sex roles/sex differences in behavior?
What are three reasons that different classes of individuals may show different behaviors?
1) differences in opportunities
2) differences in constraints that determine payoffs (costs & benefits) of different behavioral options
3) differences in goals and priorities
Why is it sometimes in the interest of all individuals in a social group to signal dominance status?
Dominance is used to gain advantage in resource access, mating, safety, etc.
Why should all individuals be designed to desire high social status?
High ranking individuals convert dominance into higher genetic contribution
What two factors tend to stabilize dominance relations through long periods of time?
Dominance is transmitted, Higher ranked individuals often form alliances
What are egalitarian , ranked, and class societies?
1) egalitarian (equal access to resources, power, status)
2) ranked (some individuals or groups have symbolically higher rank that determine marriage rights, ritual participation, social status etc. but limited differences in power & economic advantage
3) class (subsets born with greater economic opportunity, power, and social status)
What is the general theoretical principle that accounts for stratification in the natural world?
Resource defensibility often leads to stratification!
What is the evidence presented in class that there is a lag between obtaining or loosing wealth, and social status of individuals?
'nouveau riche'. Often convert wealth to high status (class) in second generation.
People from old wealth background retain status even after wealth is gone (Kennedy, Rockefeller, etc.)
Why do we expect that the rich will get richer relative to the poor in capitalist economies? What stops this process?
Wealth can be leveraged to gain greater wealth
What condition makes upward mobility difficult? What factor makes it more likely?
upward mobility becomes difficult if capital is heritable
What are the trends in wealth stratification in the US in the past 30 years?
Wealth stratification in the US has increased tremendously since the foundation of the "democracy".
In 2019 for first time ever, the top 1% has greater net worth than the entire middle class
How does the Gini coefficient in the US? What does this mean about wealth inequality? Which country has the highest Gini coefficient in the world?
U.S. GINI coefficient looks like Roman empire and "communist"China! South Africa
What are three reasons to suspect that differences in sex roles are not just due to male exploitation of females?
Men have mothers, sisters, and daughters
Specialization within families by sex is often due to similar efficiency gains
Women often promote sex role compliance by their daughters
When males and females have a shared common product (children) what are the four factors that Gary Becker showed could lead to specialized sex roles within families?
Many different goods and services have utility
One sex may have a comparative advantage
Economy of scale characterizes many tasks
Tasks require extensive learning and skill
What is some evidence that childcare constraints explain why women in hunter-gatherer societies gather rather than hunt? What is an alternative hypothesis?
1) Different constraints (childcare) vs. 2) different goals (mating)
What are likely reasons why men and women engage in different activities even in modern societies?
economy of scale (women often cook, shop, or wash) and training specialization (men do mechanical work, house repair, yardwork etc.)
What is the most important reason that men are more involved in politics than are women around the world?
males have more to gain (in genetic contribution) from high political status than do women.
What are the two main reasons that women don't participate in warfare as much as men?
a) costs are higher -- lower strength, childcare constraints
b) benefits smaller -- successful males spread their genes (Genghis Khan, ISIS recruiting)
Why is the number of formal political positions held by women in different societies not always a good measure of how much "power" women have
Power = ability to get the outcome you prefer in a conflict
What are the two aspects of social structure that are highly associated with kinship?
1) Who you live with (coresidence);
2) How rights and opportunities are transferred across generations (inheritance & membership).
What are consanguineal and affinal relations?
relations by marriage
What three factors generally force one of the two sexes to move residence after marriage?
1) adults live together after marriage
2) all people cant live together in one place
3) people don't marry close kin
What do endogamous and exogamous mean?
Endogamous is when both families are from the same settlement, exogamous is when one family is from a different settlement
What are the five types of residence patterns and how do they differ?
Patrilocal/Virilocal- Sons stay with their parents and co-reside with male kin and their spouses. Women move at marriage, and may live far away and rarely see their consanguineal kin.
Matrilocal/Uxorilocal- Daughters stay with their parents, and co-reside with female kin. Men may move into a matrilocal house in the same village in which their own patrikin reside. But men rarely move far from their male kin!
Bilocal- Married adults of either sex live with their parents and siblings depending on circumstances (opportunistically)
Avunculocal- Married couples live with the husband's mother's brother after marriage.
Neolocal- New couples live in independent household apart from both spouses'families and are mainly economically independent.
Which residence type is most common in human societies?
Why is it likely that our Hominin ancestors were male philopatric?
chimpanzee and bonobo social organization is based on male philopatry
Know which kin should live together in patrilocal & matrilocal societies.
Sons stay with their parents and co-reside with male kin
Daughters stay with their parents, and co-reside with female kin
Who do men and women reside with in avunculocal societies?
emphasizes the importance of the maternal line but also male political alliance.
Which kind of society often has a "men's house"?
What kind of societies practice neolocal residence?
What forces theoretically favor males clustering with their kin or females clustering with their kin?
Whichever has most to gain or lose will determine residence pattern.
What three conditions are statistically associated with patrilocality?
when land rights, or domestic animals are inherited through the patriline
What two conditions are statistically associated with matrilocality?
when men do long distance travel, trade or raiding and are away for long time periods.
When there is no property to inherit and one set of parents is often deceased, what kind of post marital residence is statistically common?
What is the difference between parent-offspring and sib-sib coresidence in hunter gatherers?
Adult brothers and sisters coreside
Lifelong relationships between parents and adult offspring including parental investment in adulthood.
What fraction of hunter-gatherer bands are composed of individuals with no blood or marital ties to each other?
What is a unilineal descent group?
membership defined by descent either along the paternal or maternal line.
Know the 8 functions typical of descent groups in human societies.
1) regulating marriage
2) defending unique land/resource rights;
3) define legitimacy of specified activities
4) violent conflict alliance
5) economic cooperation;
6) political alliance;
7) sharing religious duties
8) Claim unique legitimacy of political power
What is a lineage, clan, phratry, and moiety?
Lineage: descent group whose members trace their genealogical links to a known common ancestor.
Clan: groups of lineages --descended from some unspecified common ancestor far back in time.
Phratry: groups of clans, although a real common ancestor is not identified
Moiety: When an entire society is divided up into only two descent groups
Know an ethnographic example of a society that is structured by clans.
What are three things that were regulated in Arunta society according to which subsection a person belonged to?
Areas of the camp that can be visited, marriage prescriptions. Even direction of walking to another house were prescribed.
Who are the preferred marriage partners for individuals with Crow kin terminologies? What about Omaha? Which one is a patrilineal reckoning system?
What is the kin terminology system of American kinship terms? Who does it imply are the allowable marriage partners?
Anyone but kin
How long do we suspect that our species has practiced religious beliefs? What is the earliest evidence that implies religious belief?
What is a prominent feature of the Aztec religion that is also found in many other religions that developed independently?
Little or no similarity to Middle Eastern religion
What two observations define the position of militant atheists? What does their second position seem incongruent with anthropological investigation?
Religion teaches us to be satisfied with non-explanations
Religion has caused most of the wars, ethnic killing, prejudice and deception in the world
Why do anthropologists suspect that relgion serves and important function to those who practice it?
Otherwise it would be out- competed by cultural variants that did not "waste"that energy
Know the seven hypothesis presented in class to explain the function of religion.
Explaining the unexplainable
Relieve anxiety about control over future events
Promoting in-group cooperation
Relieves uncertainty about how to live
Justifying behavior toward out-groups
Transmission of regulations that might be questioned
What are the three ways that religion is hypothesized to relieve stress (3 of the 7 hypotheses about the function of religion).
Having simple answers may relieve stress
Relieves stress to believe that we can control over whether bad things happen to us
Religion provides people with hope
What evidence is there that religion does promote cooperation within groups?
Runs contrary to self interest but provides benefits for the entire social group if all members of society comply
Why do humans sometimes need religion to justify cruel exploitation and mistreatment of others? Know the examples mentioned in class.
Frequently used to justify enslaving or taking land and resources away from "non-believers"
Pressing the victims at Salem in order to extract their land title
Inquisition of Jews, Indians, Protestants
The Sand Creek Massacre
Camp Grant massacre
What kinds of supernatural beings are typically found in religions of complex societies? In what kinds of societies do the deities often demand obedience?
What types of societies usually worship ancestral spirits?
Agricultural and herding societies
What kinds of supernatural beliefs are typical of simple tribal societies?
What are animatism and animism? Which one is represented by the American belief in lucky objects?
Animism: plants and animal species, rocks, trees, mountains, springs, and other geographical features may be inhabited by specific spirits.
Animatism: Animatism: supernatural forces that are impersonal, but not tied to specific plants, animals or objects.
What is the Ache belief about where fire came from?
Deer could make fire between their toes, but Ache stole it from them
Why are some Ache infants thrown into the grave alive with adults when they die?
Ghosts of dead people were dangerous, and thus infants were often thrown into the grave alive (chape) in order that "anjave" not come looking for other living people
What is the difference between a linguist and a polyglot?
Polyglot- someone who speaks many languages
Linguist- someone who studies language structure
What is "ritualization"?
Formation of gestures that are produced in order to be read
What type of communication is typical of many primates?
How many distinct calls do vervet monkeys have?
How do we know that vervet alarm calls carry specific meanings for each predator?
eagle = cough
snake = chutter
leopard = bark
What animal has the most complex communication system after humans?
Prairie dogs, regular dogs, chimps
Athough chimpanzees can be taught vocabulary words using sign language, what do they never learn?
grammar and syntax
What are the three areas of patterning in language that together make up grammar?
Ability to associate meaning with signals
Ability to modify own signals after observing usage
Ability to infer communicative intentions (meaning) in others
What is a phoneme? How many phonemes exist in English? In all human languages combined?
minimum unit of sound that can function to differentiate meaning
What is an allophonic phoneme? Know how to recognize examples of them
a phoneme having two or more sounds
non-aspirated: snorKel, apPle, litTle
aspirated: sKin, sPin, sTun
What is the phonic explanation for why foreign accents sound foreign?
native allomorphic rules when speaking foreign languages
What allophonic rule (discussed in class) do Spanish speaker apply to English that makes them sound like they have an accent?
Spanish allophonetic rule against voiced s
Besides phonemes, What are three other changes in sound that can differentiate meaning in some languages?
Stretch, pitch, length
What is a morpheme. Know how to break up simple English words into morphemes.
smallest units of sound that can convey specific meaning
"cat" is one morpheme (you cannot break it up any more and still have it mean something)
"-s" is another morpheme, conveying the meaning that you are referring to more than one (plural)
What is the difference between a free and bound morpheme?
"cat" is a free morpheme, meaning it can stand alone
"-s" is a bound morpheme, meaning it can only convey its meaning when attached to another morpheme
What are three kinds of affixes? Which is missing from English?
number, tense, case
What are "isolating", "agglutinizing" and "polysynthetic" languages?
Meaning of each word comes from only one or a few morphemes
Different morphemes together into single words
Lots of morphemes together, positioning of such morphemes affects their meaning
What is syntax? What is the difference between syntax and grammar?
How words are strung together to make sentences or phrases that convey complex meanings.
Phonology & Morphology & Syntax = Grammar
About how long does it take for languages to become mutually unintelligible once two groups speaking the same parent language become permanently isolated from each other?
500 - 1,000
According to studies of glottochronology, when did English and German separate as languages?
1,500 years ago
What is the only European language that is completely unconnected to the IndoEuropean macro language family?
According to current evidence where did the IndoEuropean languages originate, and at what time did they all share a last common ancestral language?
Grasslands of Ukraine-Russia 6.5ka
6,100 years ago
What are six pieces of evidence that the human language learning adaptation may be highly specialized for just producing language?
All human societies have language
There is no correlation between technological complexity and language complexity.
All individuals are users of spoken language
Children do not have to be taught how to speak
60,000 discrete words but can be recombined to mean an infinite number of different things.
What are the two most common topics of conversation among Ache women, and Ache men?
Gossip and child developent
Joking and resource gathering
What are the two areas of the brain, that when damaged, lead to language loss?
Broca's area (grammar) and Wernicke's area (vocabulary)
What is a piece of evidence that early Homo might have had language? What is a piece of evidence that Homo erectus did not have language?
Neanderthals share these human FOXP2 alleles
FOXP2 has other functions
Which gene, that was highly conserved in mammalian evolution, evolved two amino acid changes in the past 100,000 years and affects a large suite of language capacities in modern humans?
Know the four summary points of the course on the final ppt slide of the semester!
1) Many human universals - due to recent ancestry and expansion from Africa
2) Variation comes from local adaptation and random drift when variants are selectively neutral
3) Two systems of informational inheritance underlie the patterned evolution of adaptive traits-- genetic and cultural. Cultural evolution is much more rapid.
4) The human ability to change our own environment means that we have become the major selective force in our own evolution
What are two differences between modern life and the life of our ancestors, that have implications for health issues in the modern world?
More stressful (competitive) social environment with less support
Much easier physical life (no parasites, pathogens, hunger, high workloads).
How many teen suicides have been discovered in Hunter-Gatherer demographic studies, vs. in modern America?
0 VS 5,000 per year
What modern factor might lead to many teens developing artificially low self esteem?
Know some of the differences between American vs. Hunter-Gatherer lives that might effect psychological development and well being.
People never lived alone
Children learn things relevant to their lives
Kids don't ostracize or harass age peers, nor form cliques
There is no age segregation,
What are 12 disturbing modern health problems that may be due to a mismatch between our evolutionary design and the modern evironments we live in (see list on slide 17 of lect 24 -- reproductive cancers, asthma, type II diabetes, etc. etc.)
Reproductive cancers (breast, ovarian, prostate)
Obesity/ type II diabetes
Depression & Suicide
How do the cholesterol levels of hunter-gatherers compare to those of modern people?
100-150 vs 210
What is the best way to determine the optimal diet for any living organism?
The foods to which the animal species is genetically adapted
What percent of the energy in the modern American diet comes from foods that were never available to our ancestors?
When was High Fructose Corn Syrup first introduced as a major food component in American diets?
What is the difference in the way grains were traditionally processed into flour, and the way it is done in modern societies?
There were minimally processed, modern grains are refined
What is the glycemic index?
it measures the ability of a food to raise blood sugar
What is the glycemic load? What foods have low glycemic loads
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