AP World History Midterm (No Pictures)

Terms in this set (75)

-An ancient civilization that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea; probably the most successful civilization ever
Kingdom
-was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories
-many kings were Etruscan
Republic
-Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate and the two Consuls
-Patricians are the only people allowed in government, until eventually Plebeians were allowed
Julius Caesar
-Roman general who became the republic's dictator
-Policies led the way toward a centralized, imperial form of govt
-He was murdered by a group of senators who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic
-They plunged Rome into conflict, which when it ended led to the Roman Empire
Augustus
-First emperor of Rome
-He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil
-Was the first true emperor of Rome and began the Roman Empire
-Centralized Political and Military power
Empire
-Conquiered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe
-Rome gets along well with those it has conquered
-Ruled by an emperor
-oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity
-Roman Roads: helped to facilitate trade (Lead to more economic prosperity)
-Roman Law: Political stability of Pax Romana allowed creation of laws to integrate the diverse lands that made up the Roman Empire
-Commercial Agriculture: Farmers focused on harvesting crops for export (allowed places to specialize in fruits, veggies and manufactured items, knowing they would have a supply of the foods they needed)
-Mediterranean Trade; commercial agriculture and manufactured goods creations led the way to the surplus of these items to be traded throughout the Roman Empire
-Made use of slave labor
Pax Romana
-long era of peace and safety in the Roman Empire
-one of the longest periods in history of peace
-Brought on by Augustus
-Lead to economic and political prosperity
-Facilitated trade and communication
Christianity
-Followers were persecuted by the Romans
-Faith appealed to lower classes, urban populations, and women
-Caused Christianity to be practiced widely
-Otto I
~Otto of Saxony rose in northern Germany by the mid-tenth century
~Pope John XII proclaimed him emperor in 962: birth of Holy Roman Empire
-Investiture contest
~Formerly, important church officials were appointed by imperial authorities
~Pope Gregory VII ordered an end to the practice
~Emperor Henry IV was excommunicated because of his disobedience
-Frederick Barbarossa
~Sought to absorb Lombardy in north Italy
~Papal coalition forced Barbarossa to relinquish his rights in Lombardy
-Feudalism
~Dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection
-Crusades
~Pope Urban II called Christian knights to take up arms and seize the holy land, 1095
`Peter the Hermit traveled in Europe and organized a ragtag army
`Campaign was a disaster for the crusaders
~First Crusade
`French Norman nobles organized military expedition,1096
`Jerusalem fell to the crusaders, 1099
=Muslims recaptured, 1187
~Later Crusades
`By the mid-thirteenth century, five major crusades had been launched
`The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) conquered Constantinople
`The Crusades failed to take over Palestine from the Muslims
~Consequences of the Crusades
`Crusaders established some states in Palestine and Syria
`Encouraged trade with Muslims
=Demands for Luxury goods increased
`Muslims ideas filter to Europe: Aristotle, science, astronomy, numerals, paper
-Arrival of the Mexica (or Aztecs) in Central Mexico mid-13th century
~Warriors and raiders
~Built capital city, Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City), about 1345
~Developed productive chinampas style of agriculture
-15th century, Aztecs launched military campaigns against neighboring societies
~Conquered and colonized Oaxaco in Southwestern Mexico
~Made alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan
~Built an empire of twelve million people, most of Mesoamerica
-Controlled subject peoples with oppressive tribute obligations
~Empire had no bureaucracy or administration
`Local administrators enforced tributes
~Allies didn't have standing army
~Tribute of 489 subject territories flowed into Tenochtitlan
-Society
~Most info comes from Spanish sources, recorded after the conquest
~Mexica warriors were the elite at the top of a rigid social hierarchy
`Mostly from the Mexica aristocracy
`Enjoyed great wealth, honor, and privileges
~Mexica women had no public role, but were honored as mothers of warriors
`Mexica women active in commerce and crafts
`Primary purpose to bear children
=Women who died in childbirth celebrated
~Priests among Mexica Elite
`Read omens, presided over rituals, monitored ritual calendar
`Advisers to Mexica rulers, occasionally became supreme rulers
~Most of the Mexica were either cultivators or slaves
`Cultivators worked on chinampas (small plots of reclaimed land) or on aristocrats' land
`Paid tribute and provided labour service for public service for public works
`Large number of slaves who worked as domestic servants
~Artisans and merchants enjoyed prestige
`Artisans valued for skill work, especially luxury items
`Trade could be profitable, but also risky
~Religion
`Deities adopted from prior Mesoamerican cultures
Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcóatl
`Ritual bloodletting common to all Mesoamericans
=Human Sacrifice to Huitzilopochtli
=Large temple at the center of Tenochtitlan
+Thousands of skulls
-Kingdom of Chucuito dominated Andean South America after the twelfth century
~Cultivation of potatoes and herding of llamas and alpacas
~Traded with lower valleys
~Chewed coca leaves
-Chimu, powerful kingdom in the lowlands of Peru before the mid-fifteenth century
~Irrigation networks
`Cultivation of maize and sweet potatoes
`Capital city at Chanchan had massive brick buildings
~Settled first around Lake Titicaca in the Andean Highlands
`Ruler Pachacuti launched campaigns against neighbors, 1438
`Built a huge empire stretching four thousand kilometers from north to south
~Inca ruled as a military and administrative elite
`Use of quipu for record keeping
`Capital at Cuzco, which had as many as three hundred thousand people in the late fifteenth century
`Extensive road system linked north and south
`Official runners carried messages
=Spread of Quencha language
~Society and religion
`Trade limited
=Local barter in agricultural goods
=Fewer specialized crafts
`Hereditary aristocracy
=Chief ruler viewed as descended from the sun
+Owned everything on Earth
=After death, mummified rulers became intermediaries with gods
=Aristocrats enjoyed fine food, embroidered clothes, and wore ear spools
=Priests led celibate and ascetic lives
+Very influential figures
`Peasants worked the land and gave over a portion of their produce to the state
=Besides supporting ruling classes, revenue also used for famine relief
=Peasants also provided heavy labor for public works
`Priests served the gods
=Venerated sun god called Inti
=Creator god, Viracocha
=Ritual sacrifices practiced but not of humans
=Religion had strong moral dimension
+Rewards and punishments
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