Levels of organization: tissue, cell, organ, molecule, organism, organ system. What is the correct order?
Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
The increasingly forceful labor contractions during childbirth are an example of...
Failure of homeostatic regulation in the body results in...
A plane through the body that passes perpendicular to the long axis of the body and divides the body into a superior and inferior section is a...
In which body cavity would you find each of the following organs?
b) small intestine, large intestine
a) heart-pericardial cavity
b) small and large intestines-peritoneal cavity
c) lungs-pleural cavity
d) kidneys-abdominal (abdominopelvic) cavity
The mediastinum is the region between the...
-lungs and heart
-TWO PLEURAL CAVITIES
-chest and abdomen
-heart and pericardium
The subdivisions of the ventral body cavity are located within the...
-pleural cavity and pericardial cavity
-coelom and peritoneal cavity
-pleural cavity and peritoneal cavity
-THORACIC CAVITY AND ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
Which of the following is not an example of negative feedback?
-Increased pressure in the aorta triggers mechanisms to lower blood pressure.
-A rise in blood calcium levels triggers the release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels.
-A RISE IN ESTROGEN DURING THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS IN THE UTERUS.
-Increased blood sugar stimulates the release of a hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to store blood sugar.
an anatomical reference position; the body viewed from the anterior surface with the palms facing forward
autoregulation vs. extrinsic regulation
AUTOREGULATION: changes in activity that maintain homeostasis in direct response to changes in the local environment; does not require neural or endocrine control.
EXTRINSIC REGULATION: results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system.
The lightest of an atom's main components...
-CARRIES A NEGATIVE CHARGE
-carries a positive charge
-plays no part in the atom's chemical reactions
-is found only in the nucleus
Isotopes of an elemnt differ from each other in the number of...
-protons in the nucleus
-NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS
-electron in the outer shells
-all are correct
The number and arrangement of electrons in an atom's outer energy level determines the atom's...
All organic compounds in the human body contain all of the following elements except...
A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bonded together is called a(n)...
All the chemical reactions that occur in the human body are collectively referred to as...
The speed, or rate, of a chemical reaction is influenced by...
-the presence of catalysts
-the concentration of the reactants
-ALL ARE CORRECT
A pH of the 7.8 in the human body typifies a condition referred to as...
A(n) _____ is a solue that dissociates to release hydrogen ions, and a(n) _____ is a solute that removes hydrogen ions from solution.
Chemical reactions in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called
Which of the following is not a function of a protein?
-STORAGE OF GENETIC INFORMATION
If a polypeptide contains 10 peptide bonds, how many amino acids does it contain?
A dehydration synthesis reaction between glycerol and a single fatty acid would yield a(n)...
-omega-3 fatty acid
a protein that catalyzes specific biochemical reactions by lowering a reaction's activation energy
an inorganic compound consisting of a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH-, the dissociation of some salts makes a solution slightly acidic or slightly basic.
nonpolar covalent bonds
involve equal sharing of electrons because atoms involved have equal pull for the electrons
polar covalent bonds
involve unequal sharing of electrons because one of the atoms involved in the bond has a disproportionately strong pull on the electrons, like water
involves a cation (positive charge), which loses one or more electrons and an anion (negative charge), which gains those electrons; cation gives, anion receives; attraction between opposite charges draws the two ions together.
In an exergonic reaction...
-large molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
-small molecules are assembled into larger ones.
-molecules are rearranged to form new molecules.
-molecules move from reactants to products and back.
-ENERGY IS RELEASED DURING THE REACTION.
The hydrogen bonding that occurs in water is responsible for all of the following, except...
-the high boiling point of water.
-the low freezing point of water.
-THE ABILITY OF WATER TO DISSOLVE NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES.
-the ability of water to dissolve inorganic salts.
-the surface tension of water.
The process that transports solid objects such as bacteria into the cell is called...
Plasma membranes are said to be...
_____ ion concentrations are high in extracellular fluid, and _____ ion concentrations are high in the cytoplasm.
In a resting transmembrane potential, the inside of the cell is _____, and the cell exterior is _____.
-SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE, SLIGHTLY POSITIVE
-slightly positive, slight negative
-slightly neutral, slightly positive
-slightly negative, slightly neutral
The construction of a functional polypeptide by using the information in an mRNA strand is...
The organelle responsible for a variety of functions centering around the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates is...
-rough endoplasmic reticulum
-SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Our somatic cell nuclei contain how many pairs of chromosomes?
The movement of water across a membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is known as...
The interphase of the cell life cycle is divided into...
-prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
-G0, G1, S, AND G2.
-mitosis and cytokinesis.
-all of these.
Diffusion is important in body fluids, because it tends to...
-increase local concentration gradients.
-ELIMINATE LOCAL CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS
-move substances against concentration gradients.
-create concentration gradients.
Microvilli are found...
-mostly in muscle cells.
-on the inside of plasma membranes.
-in large numbers on cells that secrete hormones.
-IN CELLS THAT ARE ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN ABSORPTION.
-only on cells lining the reproductive tract.
When a cell is placed in a(n) _____ solution, the cell will lose water through osmosis. This process results in the _____ of red blood cells.
The sodium potassium exchange pump...
-is an example of facilitated diffusion.
-does not require the input of cellular energy in the form of ATP.
-moves the sodium and potassium ions along their concentration gradients.
-IS COMPOSED OF A CARRIER PROTEIN LOCATED IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
-is not necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis.
If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to...
List and describe each phase in the interphase stage of the cell life cycle.
-G0: not preparing for division, performing functions appropriate for that particular cell
-G1: normal cell functions plus cell growth, duplication of organelles, protein synthesis
-S: DNA replication, synthesis of histones
-G2: protein synthesis, completion of centriole replication
List and describe the stages of mitosis.
-Prophase: nucleoli disappear, centriole pairs move to cell poles, microtubules (spindle fibers) extend between centriole pairs, nuclear envelope disappears, spindle fibers attach to kinetochore
-Metaphase: chromosomes align a central plane (metaphase plate)
-Anaphase: microtubules pull chromosomes apart, daughter chromosomes group near centrioles
-Telophase: nuclear membranes re-form, chromosomes uncoil, nucleoli reappear, cell has two complete nuclei
division of cytoplasm, cleavage furrow around metaphase plate, membrane closes, producing daughter cells
passive, carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins (glucose, amino acid)
A molecule blocks the ion channels in integral proteins in the plasma membrane would interfere with...
-the movement of lipid-soluble molecules.
-producing changes in the electrical charges across a plasma membrane.
-THE ABILITY OF PROTEIN HORMONES TO STIMULATE THE CELL.
-the cell's ability to divide.
simple squamous epithelium
flat, one layer, most delicate type of epithelium, located where absorption or diffusion takes place, types are mesothelium (lines ventral body cavities), and endothelium (lines the inner surface of the heart and all bloods vessels).
simple cuboidal epithelium
square-like shape, one layer, provides limited protections and occurs where secretions or absorption takes place, lines portions of the kidney tubules.
simple columnar epithelium
column-shaped, one layer, where absorption or secretion occurs, such as in the small intestine.
stratified squamous epithelium
flat, layered, like layers in a sheet of plywood, located where mechanical stresses are severe,protects against physical and chemical attacks, on the surface of the skin, lining of the mouth, esophagus, and anus.
stratified columnar epithelium
column-shaped and stacked, relatively rare, providing protection along portions of the pharynx, epiglottis, anus and urethra, as well as along a few large excretory ducts.
Collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions are called...
Tissue that is specialized for contraction is...
A tupe of cell junction common in cardiac and smooth muscle tissues is the...
The most abundant connections between cells in the superficial layers of the skin are...
_____ membranes have an epithelium that is stratified and supported by dense connective tissue.
Mucous secretions that coat the passageways of the digestive and respiratory tracts result from _____ secretion
Functions of connective tissue include...
-establishing a structural framework for the body.
-storing energy reserves.
-providing protection for delicate organs.
-ALL OF THESE.
Which of the following epithelia most easily permits diffusion?
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is...
The three major types of cartilage in the body are...
-collagen, reticular, and elastic.
-areolar, adipose, and reticular.
-HYALINE, ELASTIC, AND FIBROUS.
-tendons, reticular, and elastic.
The primary function of serous membranes in the body is to...
-MINIMIZE FRICTION BETWEEN OPPOSING SURFACES.
-line cavities that communicate with the exterior.
-perform absorptive and secretory functions.
-cover the surface of the body.
Tissue changes with age can result from...
-increased need for sleep.
-THE FIRST AND THIRD ANSWERS.
-all of these.
Axons, dendrites, and a cell body are characteristic of cells located in...
The repair process necessary to restore normal function in damaged tissues is...
-all of these.
functions of epithelial tissue
1. provide physical protection.
2. control permeability.
3. provide sensation.
4. produce specialized secretions.
difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands
Endocrine glands secrete discharges into surrounding interstitial fluid, while exocrine glands secrete into an epithelial surface.
the three methods by which glandular epithelial cells release their secretions
1. merocrine, 2. apocrine, and 3. holocrine secretions
the three basic components of connective tissues
1. specialized cells, 2. extracellular protein fibers, and 3. a fluid known as ground substance
the four kinds of membranes composed of epithelial and connective tissue that cover and protect other structures and tissues in the body
1. mucous, 2. serous, 3. cutaneous, and 4. synovial membranes
function of neurons
transmit electrical impulses in the form of changes in the transmembrane potential
function of neuroglia
comprises several kinds of supporting cells and play a role in providing nutrients to neurons
fluid connective tissues
have distinctive populations of cells suspended in a watery matrix that contains dissolved proteins, two types are blood and lymph
A layer of glycoproteins and a network of fine protein filaments that prevents the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the connective tissue of the epithelium describes...
-THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
-the reticular lamina.
Why does damaged cartilage heal slowly?
because cartilage is avascular, so nutrients and other molecules must diffuse to the site of injury.
enzyme containing vesicles, break down fatty acids and organic compounds, produce hydrogen peroxide, replicate by division
vesicles containing powerful, digestive enzymes, primary lysosome: formed by golgi apparatus and inactive enzymes, secondary lysosome: fused with damaged organelle, digestive enzymes activated, toxic chemicals isolated
stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae), modifies and packages secretions, renews or modifies the plasma membrane, packages special enzymes within vesicles for use in the cytoplasm
double membrane with inner membrane folds (cisternae), produces 95% of the ATP required by the cell
rough: modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins, smooth: synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
for strength and support, movement of cellular structures and materials, contains microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic info; control of protein synthesis; contains nucleolus, chromatin, nuclear envelope, and nuclear pore