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Immediate sensual Appeal

Drugs that generate intense pleasure without the need to learn how to appreciate the drug. Usually refers to Cocaine and Amphetamines.

Alcohol, pot, and lsd have to be learned in order to be appreciated.

Positive Reinforcement

the pleasure that organisms derive from taking a drug; it is the driving force in generating continued, compulsive, abusive drug use.


if you gain tolerance to one type of drug, you will also gain tolerance to a different drug that is within the same type.

ex: if you gain tolerance to heroin, you also gain tolerance to morphine.

Behavioral Tolerance

how experienced users learn to compensate for the effects of a given drug, and therefore a given dose of the drug has a decreasing impact on their behavior.

ex: experienced drinker is much "better" at drunk driving than an unexperienced drinker.

Drug Action

very specific and takes place at the molecular level. What the chemical does inside your body (like bind to receptors)

Drug Effect

a nonspecific product of the Drug Action (takes the context of the drug use in mind).

ex: alcohol binding to receptor sites (the drug action) causes discoordination (the drug effect)

Endogenous drugs

chemical substances, produced internally by the body, that affect the workings of the brain and powerfully influence behavior.

ex: neurotransmitters

Acute Effect

short term effects of a drug. They take place during the use and immediately afterward.

ex: motor discoordination due to drinking 10 shots of wiskey.

Chronic Effect

long-term effects.

ex: liver damage, lung damage, brain damage

direct: happens because of drug itself (liver damage)
indirect: happens because of circumstances around drug use (HiV from dirty needles due to sharing)

ED/LD Ratio

Effective Dose/ Deadly Dose Ratio

measures toxicity of a substance.

Closer it is to 1:1 the more toxic it is. The farther from 1:1 it is, the safet it is

Safety/ therapeutic margin

the size of the difference or gap between ED and LD


the mixing or translation of one sense into another.

ex: "seeing" sounds

Eidetic imagery

vivid closed-eye visual imagery. Can see things even though your eyes are closed.

Additive effect


Antagonistic effect


Synergistic effects



any subtance that facilitates the adaption to the sorrounding environment

Narcotic (law enforcement definition)

any illicit drug

Narcotic (Goode definiton)

refers to opiates and opioids (mainly pain killing abilities).

Availability heuristic

the more uncommon things are easier to recall, giving a false sense that they happen commonly.

ex: chance of shark attack (which sticks in our heads) compared to drowning (which does not). Much higher chance of drowning than shark attack.

De-patterning factor

enable us to break free of structured ways.

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