Exam 1-Clinical Nutrition 2

What type(s) of foods should be avoided in a patient with GERD because it (they) decrease(s) LES pressure?

A. High-fiber foods
B. Low-fat milk and yogurt
C. High-protein foods
D. Peppermint
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Which of the following statements is NOT associated with Helicobacter pylori?

A. H. pylori increases the risk of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.
B. H. pylori is a viral infection found in the intestine.
C. H. pylori is a bacterial infection found in the gastric mucosa.
D. H. pylori infection may be treated with antibiotics and acid suppression therapies.
Which of the following dietary modifications minimize the problems associated with a gastrectomy with a vagotomy?

A. Increasing carbohydrate intake, particularly simple sugars, and decreasing fat and protein
B. Decreasing intake of liquids and simple sugars with meals
C. Reducing the intake of fiber from fruits and vegetables
Increasing the intake of milk at mealtimes and between meals
Which of the following should be included in the advice given to a patient regarding eating a high-fiber diet? A. Increase polyunsaturated fat intake. B. Make sure to get more vitamin C. C. Drink at least 2 L of water each day. D. Make sure to get more iron.C. Drink at least 2 L of water each day.The most common cause of broad-spectrum (ex. Vancomycin or Cipro) antibiotic-induced diarrhea is A. Lactobacillus spp. B. Saccharomyces boulardii. C. Escherichia coli. D. Clostridium difficile.D. Clostridium difficileWhat is the most common carbohydrate intolerance that affects people of all ages? A. Lactose intolerance B. Galactose intolerance C. Sucrose intolerance D. Maltose intoleranceA. Lactose intoleranceWhat is a characteristic difference between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis? A. Age at disease onset B. Segmental versus continuous distribution of the disease throughout the GI tract C. Clinical features of diarrhea, food intolerance, and dehydration D. Medical management with steroids and dietB. Segmental versus continuous distribution of the disease throughout the GI tractWhat should patients with Crohn disease be monitored for when experiencing severe diarrhea? A. Calcium and phosphorus status B. Magnesium and iron status C. Zinc and Potassium status D. Iron and selenium statusC. Zinc and potassium statusWhat should be included in the initial treatment of diarrhea? A. Low-fat, low-fiber diet B. Replacement of lost fluids and electrolytes C. Increase of high-pectin foods D. High-fiber diet to increase stool bulk and restore normal bowel motilityB. Replacement of lost fluids and electrolytesWhich of the following are NOT included in the gluten-restricted, gliadin-free diet to treat celiac disease? A. Wheat, rye, barley, and oats B. Corn, rice, soybeans, and tapioca C. Potatoes, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, and arrowroot starch D. Wheat, rice, barley, and cornA. Wheat, rye, barley, and oatsWhich disease is associated with advanced age? A. Crohn disease B. Diverticulitis C. Ulcerative colitis D. Tropical sprueB. DiverticulitisWhich of the following is a risk factor for developing colon cancer? A. IBS B. Lactase deficiency C. Polyps D. DiverticulitisPolypsWhat condition is associated with the feeling of incomplete evacuation of the bowel? A. Inflammatory bowel disease B. Constipation C. Irritable bowel syndrome D. DiverticulosisB. Constipation C. Irritable bowel syndromeThe FODMAPs diet is showing success for which group of patients? A. Patients with diverticulosis B. Celiac disease patients C. Crohn disease patients D. IBS patientsD. IBS patientsWhich of the following is a common sign of portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis? A. Ascites B. Cardiac arrhythmias C. Increased gastrointestinal motility and peristalsis D. Pulmonary fibrosisA. AscitesWhich of the following is characterized by the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct? A. Cholangitis B. Cholecystitis C. Choledocholithiasis D. CirrhosisC. CholedocholithiasisA deficiency of which nutrient is associated with Wernicke encephalopathy? A. Copper B. Essential fatty acid C. Tryptophan D. ThiaminD. ThiaminWhich of the following, when eaten with cholecystitis, may cause pain? A. High-protein foods B. High-fat foods C. Complex carbohydrates D. Simple carbohydratesB. High-fat foodsWhich of the following, when consumed by a patient with chronic pancreatitis, may cause symptoms to worsen? A. Fried foods, foods with a high sucrose content, and caffeine B. Carbohydrates, low-fat dairy products, and coffee C. Large meals, fatty foods, and alcohol D. Red meat, sweets, and coffeeC. Large meals, fatty foods, and alcoholWhich of the following symptoms appears when pancreatitis progresses to where the ability to secrete a sufficient quantity of enzymes is impaired? A. Constipation B. Hypervitaminosis A C. Steatorrhea D. Elevated serum ammoniaC. SteatorrheaIn liver disease, which factor(s) affect the interpretation of serum albumin values? A. Increased synthesis of albumin by the liver B. Increased synthesis of albumin by the liver and increased nitrogen retention C. Decreased synthesis of albumin by the liver and increased urinary nitrogen excretion D. Decreased synthesis of albumin by the liver and the presence of edema and ascites.D. Decreased synthesis of albumin by the liver and the presence of edema and ascites.Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition when treating patients with severe, acute pancreatitis because A. enteral nutrition prevents translocation of bacteria into the abdominal space/circulation B. enteral nutrition can prevent breakdown of the intestinal mucosa/cells. C. Failure to use the gastrointestinal tract exacerbates the stress response. D. all of the aboveD. all of the aboveWhich of the following may be provided to a patient with chronic pancreatitis to minimize steatorrhea? A. Water-soluble form of fat-soluble vitamins B. Pancreatic enzyme replacements C. Antacids D. Proton pump inhibitorsB. Pancreatic enzyme replacementsWhich of the following herbal supplements is popular for treating liver disease? A. Milk thistle B. Centella asiatica C. Ephedra D. KavaA. Milk thistleWhich of the following enhances the absorption of dietary iron and iron supplements? A. Calcium-containing foods B. Carbohydrates C. Vitamin C D. MagnesiumC. Vitamin C.Which of the following food groupings has the greatest iron content? A. Milk, raisins, and spinach B. Broccoli, Rice Krispies, and black beans C. Kidney beans, pistachio nuts, and eggs D. Tuna fish, beef tenderloin steak, and chicken liverD. Tuna fish, beef tenderloin steak, and chicken liverWhich of the following may reduce the absorption of iron when consumed in large amounts? A. Coffee or tea with meals B. High-fiber bread C. Pork D. FishA. Coffee or tea with mealsWhich of the following foods provide significant amounts of folate in the diet? A. Fish and seafood B. Milk products C. Fresh fruit and vegetables D. Eggs and poultryC. Fresh fruit and vegetablesHow does pernicious anemia differ from folate deficiency? A. Pernicious anemia is easily treated by dietary alterations. B. Pernicious anemia affects the central and peripheral nervous systems. C. Pernicious anemia is reversible with treatment. D. Pernicious anemia results in microcytic, hypochromic red blood cells.B. Pernicious anemia affects the central and peripheral nervous systems.Which nutrient deficiency is most likely to cause an anemia that appears microcytic and hypochromic? A. Folic acid B. Pyridoxine C. Iron D. Vitamin B12C. IronRestless legs syndrome is associated with deficiency of what nutrient? A. Iron B. Folic acid C. Vitamin B12 D. Vitamin CA. IronWhich of the following may be used in treating sickle cell anemia? A. Iron B. Ascorbic acid C. Zinc D. CopperC. ZincWhat causes pernicious anemia? A. Problem with vitamin B12 intake or absorption B. A loss of blood through the gastrointestinal tract C. A lack of iron from both heme and nonheme iron sources D. Interference with pyridoxine metabolismA. Problem with vitamin B12 intake or absorptionAfter absorption, iron is transported by A. hemoglobin B. serum albumin C. plasma transferrin D. protoporphyrinC. plasma transferrin.Which nutrient deficiency is associated with the development of hemolytic anemia? A. Iron B. Vitamin B6 C. Vitamin E D. FolateC. Vitamin ESelenium deficiency, inadequate protein, excess carbohydrates, chronic illness, and stress (high cortisol levels) can all impact what thyroid metabolic process? A. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production B. Organification of iodide (incorporation into thyroglobulin) C. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) T4 transport D. Conversion of T4 to T3Conversion of T4 to T3Low energy, cold hands and feet, fatigue, hypercholesterolemia, muscle pain, depression, and a positive result for thyroid peroxidase antibodies could all be indicative of what condition? A. Diabetes mellitus B. Graves disease C. Hashimoto thyroiditis D. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)C. Hashimoto thyroiditisSome plant foods (cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage) exert antithyroid activity through what mechanism? A. Binding iodine species B. Inhibiting thyroid peroxidase C. Increasing thyroglobulin antibodies D. Stimulating cortisolB. Inhibiting thyroid peroxidaseDietary intervention is a key therapeutic tool in managing patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. In the absence of nutritional deficiencies, what is the main goal of nutritional support? A. Maintaining vitamin sufficiency B. Decreasing oxidative stress C. Increasing iodine concentrations D. Reducing antithyroid antibodiesB. Decreasing oxidative stress D. Reducing antithyroidal antibodiesA rare primary adrenal insufficiency in which insufficient levels of steroid hormones are produced despirt adequate levels of the hormone ACTH is known as A. adrenal fatigue B. Addison disease C. Cushing syndrome D. Euthyroid sick syndromeB. Addison diseaseWhich of these is NOT a product of the thyroid? A. Thyroxine (T4) B. Calcitonin C. Reverse T3 (rT3) D. Triiodothyronine (T3)Reverse T3 (rT3)Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by which of the following biochemical and endocrine abnormalities? A. Elevated testosterone, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance B. Thyrotoxicosis, iodine deficiency, and elevated estrogen C. Impaired glucose tolerance, increased T4 conversion, and hypertension D. Low blood calcium, thyroid receptor hypersensitivity, and elevated cortisolA. Elevated testosterone, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose toleranceAlthough some T3 is produced in the thyroid, approximately 60% is generated outside the thyroid in which organ? A. Adrenal glands B. Liver C. Pancreas D. Pituitary glandB. LiverCushing syndrome is characterized by weight gain, easy bruising, depression, muscle loss, and weakness. It is caused by A. an increased concentration of endocrine autoantibodies B. thiocyanate ions, which can compete with iodine for uptake by the thyroid gland C. too much cortisol remaining in the bloodstream over a long period D. thyroid hormone deficiency during pregnancyC. too much cortisol remaining in the bloodstream over a long period.