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Criminology test 2 chapters 6 and 7
Terms in this set (50)
why does the culture of poverty have a degree of permanence?
a. Government assistance programs continue regardless of economic status.
b. Ethnic upward social mobility from poverty is impossible.
c. It allows for the creation of a perpetuating underclass.
d. Perceptions of wealth and status in society do not change over time.
It allows for the creation of a perpetuating underclass
what percentage of American children lives in poverty?
a. 11 percent
b. 44 percent
c. 22 percent
d. 66 percent
what is the fundamental basis for criminality in poverty stricken neighborhoods, under social structure theory?
a. Extreme poverty results in a breakdown of the elements of social control in the neighborhood.
b. Never-ending poverty results in decreased intelligence, which is hereditary.
c. Living in poverty is ultimately a personal choice, so such neighborhoods create themselves.
d. Poverty, due to a lack of jobs, creates a criminal class that becomes accepted.
Extreme poverty results in a breakdown of the elements of social control in the neighborhood
which of the following would likely serve to gradually erode the culture of poverty?
a. heavy-handed policing tactics that aim to eradicate crime regardless of severity
b. mass-incarceration of all individuals with a criminal record
c. the establishment of government welfare programs for the disadvantaged
d. a societal movement towards a more equitable distribution of wealth and power
a societal movement towards a more equitable distribution of wealth and power
Despite the availability of many educational resources and opportunities, what prevents many minority American from utilizing them to achieve upward social mobility?
a. Lower-class minorities tend to look at such resources as wasteful.
b. Many minorities live in communities where such resources are not available.
c. Prevailing negative social conditions inhibit many from taking advantage of them.
d. Discrimination prevents many from being allowed to participate in them.
Prevailing negative social conditions inhibit many from taking advantage of them
why is society in the United States stratified?
a. most Americans lack political representation
b. unequal distribution of wealth and power
c. lack of educational opportunities
d. the presence of many undocumented immigrants
unequal distribution of wealth power
What is the key determinant of crime, under social structure theories?
how does social disorganization theory differ from strain theory ?
a. Social disorganization theory is not premised on the idea that crime occurs due to inadequate social control.
b. Social disorganization theory holds that some people are predisposed to crime based on location.
c. Social disorganization theory focuses on personal problems rather than social conditions.
d. Social disorganization theory focuses on environmental conditions rather than personal problems in describing crime.
social disorganization theory focuses on environmental conditions rather than personal problems in describing crime
A neighborhood that is undergoing a demographic shift from middle class residential to lower class mixed use is considered a
a. stable neighborhood
b. gentrified neighborhood
c. transitional neighborhood
d. balanced neighborhood
Which of the following can be considered an example of the poverty concentration effect?
a. Working-class families leave an urban neighborhood, resulting in it becoming dominated by lower-class, economically disadvantaged families.
b. A once lower-class urban neighborhood is gentrified as a result of wealthy investors moving in and spending capital to improve it.
c. Poorer families move into a middle-class neighborhood and serve as blockbusters by attracting other lower-class families, which serves to reduce property values.
d. Apartment buildings inhabited by lower-class families eventually are purchased by the state and transformed into government housing.
working class families leave an urban neighborhood, resulting in it becoming dominated by lower class, economically disadvantaged families
What unfortunate impact can the presence of unaddressed widespread incivilities in a neighborhood have?
a. They can encourage members of the community to work together to combat them.
b. They can discourage police from patrolling the neighborhood.
c. They can serve to reduce crime since everyone would be alert to others.
d. They can produce a never-ending loop of fear, which encourages crime.
they can produce a never ending loop of fear, which encourages crime
collective efficacy is exemplified by
a. a commitment to pay taxes
b. cohesion among neighborhood residents
c. ethnic and racial solidarity
d. a high degree of nationalism
cohesion among neighborhood residents
which of the following can cause strain that results in economic criminal behavior?
a. the non-desire of an individual to receive higher education
b. a marriage ending in failure due to impropriety
c. an individual being sidelined during a sport game
d. the inability of an individual to secure financial security
the inability of an individual to secure financial security
which of the following can be considered an anomic society?
a. a society that is evolving due to changing norms and customs
b. a society that has rejected morality during a time of great upheaval
c. a society that is characterized by economic inequality
d. a society that is home to various groups sharing the same customs
a society that has rejected morality during a time of great upheaval
which of the following represents Merton's idea of innovation as an adaptation mode for accomplishing goals
a. A person acquires the education necessary to ultimately find the type of employment they have sought in life.
b. A person repeatedly fails to maintain stable employment, so they turn to crime to furnish their lifestyle.
c. A person gains a well-paying, important job with a company, but has little desire to strive for a higher position.
d. A person rejects various aspects of normal society due to personal reasons, and withdraws physically and mentally.
a person repeatedly fails to maintain stable employment, so they turn to crime to furnish their lifestyle
The American Dream is predicted on
a. building a large family
b. achieving racial equality
c. gaining political power
d. acquiring material wealth
acquiring material wealth
who of the following is most susceptible to resorting to crime to cope with the strain of losing employment?
a. an intelligent, recklessly impulsive individual
b. a highly resourceful, industrious individual
c. a depressed, withdrawn individual
d. a low self-esteem, highly moral individual
an intelligent, recklessly impulsive individual
Negative affective states are
a. poor neighborhoods
d. social classes
Culture conflict occurs when the role demands of conventional society conflict with ___
a. gradually evolving societal rules and norms
b. the rules and norms of an individual's subcultural affiliation
c. the established criminal laws of the state
d. long-held religious beliefs
the rules and norms of an individual's subcultural affiliation
a lower class male repeatedly tries to gain legal employment but fails, and he ultimately turns to crime to achieve financial security. This is explained by the concept of
a. focal concerns
b. conduct norms
c. reaction formation
d. differential opportunity
Which of the following in an example of status frustration that can lead to criminality?
a. A person is fired from his or her place of employment due to poor performance.
b. A person is accepted into college but cannot enroll due to a lack of money.
c. A person is bitter because his or her company is facing new competition.
d. A person drops out of university in favor of entering into a business venture that ultimately fails.
a person is accepted into college but cannot enroll due to a lack of money
the college boy subculture described by Cohen is largely the result of
a. the notion that dedication and hard work can help to achieve success
b. the false idea that upward social mobility out of poverty is possible
c. the understanding that employment is guaranteed with the possession of a college degree
d. the belief that everyone is equal and capable of achieving certain goals
the belief that everyone is equal and capable of achieving certain goals
Which of the following can be considered a focal concern of a lower class culture?
a. being well-regarded due to physical strength and stamina
b. acquiring a graduate degree through hard work
c. involvement in multiple community organizations
d. having a calm, stable, and sedentary lifestyle
being well regarded due to physical strength and stamina
Under social structure theory, which of the following government actions could logically alleviate criminality in an ideal world?
a. Expand the use of police to completely eradicate crime by increasing arrests for all crimes.
b. Decriminalize less severe crimes to keep low-level offenders out of jail.
c. Provide economic assistance to disadvantaged neighborhoods to discourage crime.
d. Declare martial law so that order can be restored to disorganized neighborhoods.
Expand the use of police to completely crime by increasing arrests for all crimes
how does community oriented policing positively impact neighborhoods that suffer from crime, under social structure theories?
a. It boosts informal social control in the community, which serves to decrease fear.
b. It provides police with the intelligence they need to arrest gang leaders and dismantle gangs.
c. It prevents youth from resorting to crime due to fear of ultimately being caught and punished.
d. It allows a community to band together and engage in vigilantism to eradicate crime.
it boosts informal social control in the community, which serves to decrease fear.
What does the Couch case illustrate, according to the introduction for this chapter?
a. Socialization has little to do with whether or not people end up as criminals.
b. Living in bad neighborhoods makes people more likely to support delinquent behavior.
c. The way people are brought up or socialized can have long-term influence over behavior.
d. How people see the world is dependent almost entirely on genetics.
the way people are brought up or socialized can have long term influence over behavior
what does the text mean by the statement "crime and criminality are social constructs"?
a. It is society that creates criminals and criminal behavior.
b. The stresses of societal norms create criminals.
c. Bad acts become crimes when they are defined as such through social process.
d. Those who act badly cannot be helped to behave better.
bas acts become crimes when they are defined as such through social process
what is the "missing ingredient" that may explain why those who have no economic or social reason to commit crime end up doing so?
a. socialization, or the interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society
b. a proper upbringing with strict rules in both the home and the educational experience
c. a loving mother and father living in the home
d. well behaved siblings to help set an example
socialization, or the interactions people have with various organizations institutions, and processes of society
What aspect of parenting may help to determine whether or not an individual turns to crime later in life?
a. strict rules
b. healthy meals
c. a set bedtime
what effect does a family disruption such as divorce have, according to research done in this united States?
a. It can vary, depending on how amicable the divorce was.
b. Children raised in homes with one or both parents absent may become prone to antisocial behavior.
c. It has little to no effect on delinquency rates.
d. The rates appear to go down in single parent homes.
Children raised in homes with one or both parents absent may become prone to antisocial behavior
What di the data in David Farrington's Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development Show?
a. A significant number of delinquent youths have criminal fathers.
b. A significant number of delinquent youths have criminal mothers.
c. A significant number of delinquent youths have criminal siblings.
d. A significant number of delinquent youths have criminal significant others.
a significant number of delinquent youths have criminal fathers
Which of the following is NOT included among the items of debate concerning the path of association between peers and criminality?
a. Delinquent friends cause law-abiding youths to get in trouble.
b. Older peers cause law-abiding youths to go bad.
c. Antisocial youths seek out and join up with like-minded friends.
d. Troubled youths choose delinquent peers out of necessity rather than desire.
older peers cause law abiding youths to go bad
What did the study by Travis Hirschi and Rodney Stark find regarding religion and delinquent behavior patterns?
a. There was a significant decrease in criminal behavior in those who were religious.
b. There was a significant increase in criminal behavior in those who were religious.
c. There is a negligible effect from religion on delinquent behavior.
d. There was a significant increase, then decrease in criminal behavior in those who were religious.
there is a negligible effect from religion on delinquent behavior
What are the three primary social theories regarding criminal and deviant behavior?
a. social learning theory, social deviance theory, and social labeling theory
b. social education theory, social deviance theory, and social control theory
c. social reaction theory, social delinquency theory, and social interaction theory
d. social reaction theory, social learning theory, and social control theory
Social reaction theory, social learning theory, and social control theory
What long held belief regarding the causes of criminal behavior did Edwin Sutherland dispute?
a. Criminals are primarily created in the lower classes due to a feeling of inadequacy.
b. Criminals are less likely to create strong bonds with their immediate family members despite their antisocial proclivities.
c. Criminal behavior is learned.
d. Criminal behavior is a result of society labels.
criminals are primarily created in the lower classes due to a feeling of inadequacy
What are some of the basic principles of differential association?
a. Criminal behavior is learned, learning is a by-product of interaction, criminal techniques are learned, and perceptions of the legal code influence motives and drives.
b. Criminal behavior is inherent, criminal techniques are learned, and learning is more likely to occur based on genetics.
c. Criminal behavior is learned through the watching of popular media such as television, movies, and Internet culture videos.
d. Criminal behavior is a direct result of the socioeconomic factors surrounding the individual, and both the very poor and the very rich are more prone to criminal behavior, but for different reasons.
criminal behavior is learned, learning is a by product of interaction criminal techniques are learned, and exceptions of the legal code influence motivates and drives
Who has a strongest influence over an individual?
b. close friends
c. parents and immediate family
d. neighborhood economic status
Parents and immediate family
According to Matza, what are some methods of neutralization?
a. deny fault, deny culpability, and display distress
b. deny process, condemn associates, and display loyalty to authority
c. deny responsibility, deny injury, deny the victim, condemn the condemners, and appeal to higher loyalties
d. deny injury, accept blame, condemn the condemners
deny responsibility, deny injury, deny the victim, condemn the condemners, and appeal to higher loyalties
According to social control theory, why do people obey the rules of society?
a. Obedience is acquired through the fear of punishment.
b. Obedience is a function of having legitimate opportunities.
c. Obedience is acquired through contact with law-abiding family and friends.
d. Behavior and passions are controlled by internal and external forces.
Behavior and passions are controlled by internal and external forces
What are the four main elements of Hirschi's social bond?
a. attachment, integration, reinforcement, and high self-concept
b. attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
c. attachment, self-realization, rationalization, and belief
d. attachment, negative reinforcement, involvement, and familial relationships
attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
Frank Tannenbaum stated that negative feedback from law enforcement, parents, friends, teachers, and others may cause stigmatized offenders to reevaluate their own identities. What is this process called?
a. critical self-retrospection
b. negative self-realization
c. dramatization of evil
d. primary deviance
Dramatization of evil
In what decade did social process theory begin to have a major influence on policy?
a. . 1940s
why are learning theories focused on the young?
a. Young individuals can unlearn negative behavior more easily than hardened criminals.
b. The young need more attention, as it is easier for an older criminal to process new, conventional behaviors.
c. Learning stops by adolescence.
d. Learning has such a small effect on behavior, it is best to begin early.
Young individuals can unlearn negative behavior more easily than hardened criminals
what is a popular educational program that aims to create and strengthen bonds in early life by improving basic skills and creating an atmosphere in which youths will connect to their schools?
a. Jump Start
b. Ahead of the Class
c. Classroom Goals
d. Head Start
Why might labeling theorists have issues with control theory prison programs?
a. They believe that proactive labeling is a better solution—labeling criminals with positive labels, rather than negative ones.
b. They believe that the more help offered to criminals, the more they are labeled and the more likely they are to live up to the labels thrust upon them.
c. They believe that education is wasted because it is impossible to educate hardened criminals.
d. They believe that education will only serve to teach criminals their expected stereotypes.
they believe that the more help offered to criminals, the more they are labeled and the more likely they are to live up t the labels thrust upon them.
Which of the following is not a part of social learning theory?
a. People learn to commit crime from exposure to antisocial definitions.
b. Criminal behavior depends on rewards for conventional behaviors and punishment for deviant ones.
c. Youths learn ways of neutralizing moral restraints and drift in and out of criminal behavior patterns.
d. A person's bond to society prevents him or her from violating social rules.
a persons bond to society prevents him or her from violating social rules
According to Matza, what is the process he refers to as "drift?"
a. the steady "drift" from being a law-abiding individual to being a regular criminal and deviant
b. criminals and deviants tend to stick within a certain level of delinquent behavior, but may "drift" into more serious crimes, which is especially true of drug addicts and alcoholics
c. movement along a continuum that criminals may be measured on, between total freedom and total restraint
d. the frequent "drift" of adolescents away from criminal and deviant behavior as they grow older
movement along a continuum that criminals may be measured on, between total freedom and total restraint
Labeling theory distinguishes between criminal acts and criminal careers. What terms does it use, and what are their meanings?
a. Primary deviance is the first crime committed by a career criminal, which started them down that path. All other deviant behavior is considered secondary deviance.
b. Primary deviance is a criminal act, but not necessarily the start of a criminal career. Secondary deviance occurs when the individual has become a career criminal.
c. Primary deviance is the worst crime that a criminal has committed in their career, while all lesser acts are considered secondary.
d. Primary deviance is the most serious form of deviance. Secondary deviance includes less serious deviant behaviors.
primary deviance is a criminal act, but not necessarily the start of a criminal career. Secondary deviance occurs when the individual has become a career criminal
What is neutralization theory?
a. a way in which law enforcement speaks about neutralizing the threat of adolescent delinquency
b. the manner in which parents try to cover for their delinquent children
c. the way in which individuals, primarily youths, find ways of neutralizing the moral restraints of society that would otherwise hold them accountable for their behavior
d. the way in which most adolescents who display deviant behavior have that behavior neutralized by the time they reach adulthood
the way in which individuals, primarily youths, find ways of neutralizing the moral restraints of society that would otherwise hold them accountable for their behavior
In what ways has control theory influenced public policy?
a. developed programs meant to "scare kids straight"
b. created programs that encourage felons to work with children upon release
c. created programs that focus on turning felons into teachers
d. creation of work furlough and educational opportunity programs for prisons, with the main goal being to alleviate the need for prisoners to return to crime upon release
creation of work furlough and educational opportunity programs for prisons, with the main goal being to alleviate the need for prisoners to return to crime upon release
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