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AV valves

valves that are open during atrial systole


example of a positive chronotropic drug

adrenaline (or digitalis)

an example of a positive inotropic drug


a term used to describe the blood pressure in the great arteries leaving the heart

atrial fibrillation

the term used to describe atria that are twitching but are not moving any blood

atrial systole

term for atrial contraction


a heart rate less than 50-60 bpm

cardiac cycle

one systole and one diastole

cardiac output

stroke volume X heart rate is called

cardiac reserve

the amount above normal that cardiac output can be increased (norm 4-5X)

cor pulmonale

right-side heart failure due to pulmonary disease (increased pressure)

sv will decrease initially

SV will do this initially when afterload is high

CO will decrease

effect of vagal stimulation on cardiac output

CO will decrease

effect of high K+ on cardiac output


part of the cardiac cycle most shortened in tachycardia


ventricular relaxation

ejection fraction

the term for SV/EDV X 100

end diastolic volume

meaning of EDV

end systolic volume

meaning of ESV

Frank Starling Law

law that states the greater the EDV, the greater the SV


abbreviation for high density lipoprotein (good fat)

SV will increase

SV tends to do this when EDV is high

CO will increase

effect of increasing preload on cardiac output

isovolumetric contraction

phase in systole (very short) when all 4 VALVES are CLOSED

isovolumetric contraction and ejection

two phases of systole

isovolumetric relaxation

phase in diastole (very short) when all 4 valves are closed


abbreviation for low density lipoprotein (bad fat)

left ventricle

the part of the systemic circuit that has to create the highest pressure

ml/min or L/min

units of cardiac output


phase in the cardiac cycle when all four valves are open


amount of blood that is pumped during ventricular fibrillation

passive filling

phase in diastole when most blood enters the ventricles

positive chronotropic

a drug that increases RATE of HEART is described this way

positive inotropic

a drug that increases FORCE of CONTRACTION of heart is described this way

pulmonary edema

type of edema seen during left congestive heart failure

right ventricle

the part of the PULMONARY circuit that has to create the highest pressure

stroke volume

meaning of SV

systemic edema

type of edema seen during right congestive heart failure


ventricular contraction


time in the cardiac cycle when semilunar valves are open


time in the cardiac cycle when AV valves are shut


a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute

venous return aka preload

amount of blood coming into heart

ventricular fibrillation

the term used to describe ventricles that are twitching but not moving any blood

0.3 sec ventricular systole

approximate time it takes for the ventricles to beat

60/heart beat=0.55 sec

length of the cardiac cycle if the heart beat is 110

60/heart beat=0.86 sec

length of the cardiac cycle if the heart rate is 70


typical value for the EDV

70 percent

amount of blood that reaches the ventricles during atrial fibrillation

70 percent

amount of blood that enters ventricles during passive filling


normal value for stroke volume

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