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Benjamin Franklin

bought "Pennsylvania Gazette" in 1729; not published by authority, but had new and modern approach to journalism; ran serials from novels, poetry, stories about arts and local personalities, his almanac; "news you can use" concept; sets us on road towards media conglomerates, realized that newspapers could be big business

Benjamin Harris

publisher of "Publick Occurences" which only had one issue; basically an expatriated criminal from England; set up The London Coffeehouse in colonies; got in trouble with authorities for printing "inflammatory content" about British entering into deals with Native Americans to attack the colonists; chose to stop publishing

James Franklin

publisher of "New England Courant" which started in 1724 as first independent newspaper; brother of Benjamin Franklin; lived in Boston; published newspaper without authority and got away with it

John Campbell

started "Boston News-Letter" in 1704; first consecutive newspaper; establishment man, ran newspaper by authority and made sure local officials were really happy with it; not independent, but couldn't survive if he was; very little local news, mostly reset European news that was shipped to him; local news were obits and oddities

Mary Catherine Goddard

independent newspaper businesswoman; mother was Sarah Goddard of Sarah Goddard & Co.; printed first copy of Declaration of Independence with signers names in 1777; by most accounts, most accomplished printer in the colonies

Ida B. Wells

published abolitionist paper "Spirit of Liberty" starting in 1844; probably one of most famous crusaders for abolition

David Sarnoff

founded NBC, led RCA for most of career; huge telecommunications and consumer electronics empire; came up with Sarnoff's law, which states that that the value of a broadcast network is directly proportional to the number of viewers

William Randolph Hearst

became publisher of "San Francisco Examiner" in 1887; started "New York Journal" and started running color comics; competed directly with Pulitzer for readership, employees, and content; came from wealthy Park City mining family

Joseph Pulitzer

Hungarian immigrant; brought "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" back from the dead; published "New York World" from 1883 to 1911; first newspaper comics; publicity stunts to increase circulation; directly competed with Hearst for readership, employees and content; employed Nellie Bly; in winter, sent out coal carts to tenements for good publicity, and sent out ice trucks in summer

Benjamin Day

published "New York Sun" in 1833; pioneer of the penny papers; sensational news, gossip; sold papers to newsboys who resold for profit; his formula: "It bleeds, it leads."; also invented beat system, convinced advertisers that women were potential consumers

The Yellow Kid

featured in "Hogan's Alley" comic strip in Pulitzer's "World" intially, but then also in "Journal"; yellow ink gave name to yellow journalism


closely associated with reform-oriented journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines, continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting, and emerged in the United States after 1900 and continued to be influential until World War I; after World War I, the term "muckraker" was used to refer in a general sense for a writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports to perform an auditing or watchdog function; in modern use, the term describes either a journalist who writes in the adversarial or alternative tradition or a non-journalist whose purpose in publication is to advocate reform and change; Teddy Roosevelt coined term

checkbook journalism

paying sources for a story

stunt journalism

details an individual's experiences from a deeply personal perspective; similar to gonzo journalism; individual will choose a situation, and immerse themselves in the events and people involved; less about writer's life, more about writer's experiences

meaning and focus of ethics

situational guidelines for behavior that govern what we are willing/not willing to do; "traditions or guiding spirit that governs a culture"; standards of conduct that indicate how one should behave

Aristotle's Golden Mean

philosophy of moderation; what falls in the middle; media should be balanced; present different sides, and public should decide for themselves once both sides are presented

Kant's Categorical Imperative

right is right, wrong is wrong, regardless of circumstances; classic example: Ten Commandments; Kant believes we are born with a knowledge of what is right and wrong

Mill's Principle of Utility

seek the greatest good for the greatest number; somewhat opposed to Judeo-Christian ethics; we determine what is right/wrong by choosing what yields the best consequences for the greatest amount of people

Judeo-Christian ethics

person as ends, not means; human beings have unconditional value apart from shifting circumstances; news outlets won't report names of rape victims

social responsibility ethics

make the decisions that serve society responsibly; decided by conference of media men called together at end of WWII by Henry Luce to decide what American media should do; that which serves the best interest of society is ethical; very circumstantial, what is socially responible changes

Dewey's pragmatism

ends justify the means; actions that have good consequences are ethical, actions that have bad consequences are unethical, when consequences come to those who made the decision

Rawl's Veil of Ignorance

"justice emerges when negotiating without social differentiations"; fairness is fundamental guide; basically what U.S. judicial system based on; fairness can only occur when we make decisions based on assumption of equality

vertical integration

an attempt by one company to simultaneously control several related aspects of the media business


conglomerates are companies that own media companies as well as businesses that are unrelated to the media business; sometimes, aren't profitable because owners aren't savvy with idiosyncrasies of media industry; struggle to make media companies profitable after acquiring them

second information communication revolution

the advent of printing; began in Germany in 1455 with the Gutenburg bible printed on a press that used moveable type; meant that the knowledge, which had belonged to the privileged few, would one day be available to everyone; finally allowed communication through printed word

campaign/crusade journalism

journalism aimed at a specific social or political goal; taking down the big guys


an amount the publisher pays an author, based on an established percentage of the book's price; royalties run anywhere from 6 to 15 percent


the authority to perform a specific task or certain duties; a group of people officially charged with a particular function

current sources of media revenue

most revenue comes from advertising; magazines sometimes get income from sales

parts of the basic communication model

sender (department store) > noise (satellite, bad weather) > channel/medium (TV) > noise (TV issues) receiver (viewer) > feedback (goes to store and buys)

influence online bookselling

attempt by booksellers to expand market; two people will benefit, according to Adobe's Russell Brady: young people who dread libraries, and old people who want big type; many publishers think that it's the only way publishing will survive

trade magazines

magazines put out by companies, universities, and professional associations

Emile Berliner

German-born American inventor who invented the disc-record gramophone; started multiple gramophone companies in the U.S., the U.K., and Canada

Peter Goodmark

German-Hungarian engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing (LP) microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations

Thomas Edison

American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb

Jammie Thomas

defendant in first file-sharing copyright infringement lawsuit in the United States brought by major record labels to be tried before a jury; found liable in a 2007 trial for infringing 24 songs and ordered to pay $222,000 in statutory damages


the dissemination of information (usually by radio or television) to a narrow audience, not to the general public; involves aiming media messages at specific segments of the public defined by values, preferences, or demographic attributes; also called niche marketing or target marketing; coined by public broadcasting advocate J. C. R. Licklider, who advocated for more "niche" TV stations


the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via broadcast radio, broadcast television, or other technologies; receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof


conduct or speech inciting people to rebel against the authority of a state or monarch

yellow journalism

a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers; may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism; origins in Pulitzer vs. Hearst; named for "The Yellow Kid" comic


the act of "boosting," or promoting, one's town, city, or organization, with the goal of improving public perception of it; can be as simple as "talking it up"

Bay Psalm Book

first book printed in America, by colonists at the Cambridge, Mass. press in 1640; became an instant best-seller; of the 3,500 families in the colonies at the time, 1,750 copies were sold

Poor Richard's Almanack

yearly almanac printed by Benjamin Franklin, sometimes under his psuedonym Richard Saunders or Poor Richard; contained calendar, astronomical observations, poetry, weather, sayings, and other household tips and amusements, sometimes math exercises; almanacs were popular in colonies; appeared in print from 1732 to 1758

Common Sense

pamphlet written by Thomas Paine; first published anonymously on January 10, 1776; presented the American colonists with an argument for freedom from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still undecided; Benjamin Rush helped edit and publish

Nellie Bly

pen name of journalist Elizabeth Jane Cochran; famous for trip around the world and faking psychosis to write an exposè about a mental institution from the inside; wrote for New York World; also an industrialist and charity worker

National Association of Broadcasters code

ethical code of conduct that said, "Violence, physical or psychological, may only be projected in responsibly handled contexts, not used exploitatively. Programs involving violence should present the consequences of it to its victims and perpretrators"; had a seal that members displayed before broadcasts; abolished in 1976 when a federal court judge in L.A. ruled that it violated First Amendment rights

First Amendment

protects against making any law that would: respect an establishment of religion, impede the free exercise of religion, abridge freedom of speech, infringe on freedom of the press, interefere with the right to assemble peacefully, or prohibit the petitioning of the government for a governmental redress of grievances

Henry Luce

American publisher of "Time" and "Life" also "Sports Illustrated" and "Fortune"; transformed journalistic reading habits; worked as cub reporter for Chicago Daily News and worked at The Baltimore News; first issue of "Time" in 1923; partnered with Briton Hadden; wrote "The American Century" article in Time in 1941 that defined American foreign policy for rest of 20th century; Republican, anti-communist, supported right-wing dictatorships in name of crushing communism

nature of magazine audiences

high school graduate, woman, married, owns a home, works full-time

Radio Act of 1912

federal law that mandated that all radio stations in the U.S. be licensed by the federal government; also mandated that seafaring vessels always monitor distress frequencies

Radio Act of 1927

transferred regulation from Department of Commerce to newly-created Federal Radio Commission, which had 5 people and had power to grant/deny licenses and assign frequencies/power levels; protects stations by allocating frequencies; broadcast for public community necessity; also had forerunner of "equal time rule" for political candidates

Communcations Act of 1934

replaced Federal Radio Commission with Federal Communications Commission (FCC); also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from Interstate Commerce Commission to FCC

advent of paperback books

introduced in 1939 in America by Robert de Graff called "Pocket Books"; inexpensive, fit in a pocket or purse; now books could reach a much wider audience than before; some thought that paperbacks weren't full books, so publishers printed messages that they were full editions

message pluralism

the means by which a message reaches the audience of a variety of information and entertainment sources

consumer magazines

all magazines sold by subscription or at newsstands, supermarkets and bookstores

mass media industries

books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television, and the Internet

penny paper

a newspaper produced by dropping the price of each copy to a penny and supporting the production cost through advertising

selective perception

the concept that each person processes messages differently

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