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What is 1 + 3?
Exam #2 Lectures 5-8
3 ways you know a compound is oxidized
What do thiols need to react with in order to be water soluble and why?
strong bases, in order to form water-soluble salts. thiols are weak acids and do not readily dissove in water
forms water, required heat and acid catalysts
aldehyde to carboxylic acid to a ketone
why are aldehydes and ketones polar molecules?
they both have alkyl groups attached to them which are nonpolar. The overall polarity of the molecule comes from the carboxyl group. The C is partially postive, the O is partially negative
Discuss the BP of aldehydes and ketones
-no hydrogen bonding
-both have a lower BP than alcohol and carboxylic acids of comparable molecular weight
-weak intermolecular forces of attractions
Remove 2 Hydrogens
Remove 2 Hydrogens and 1 Oxygen
what does dehydration require?
heat and acid catalyst (H2SO4)
what does oxidation require?
K2CR2O7 and H2SO4
oxygen between 2 carbons:
ethers are polar or nonpolar?
reacts with O2 to get CO2 + H2O, then balance
Thiols always include
Can thiols hydrogen bond in water?
Thiols are weak acids, just like:
Thiols react to:
strong bases like NaOH to form water soluble salts
Oxidation of 2 thiols =
CH3-S-H H-S-CH2-CH3 to CH3-S-S-CH2-CH3
Reduction of disulfide =