GED Language Arts📝 and Reading 📚
Terms in this set (71)
Clarity is the objective of any writing, and the organization of any expository writing is extremely important to clarity.
When judging the organization of a piece of writing, whether it is a promotional piece or a personal letter, you should look for a clear and logical delivery of ideas.
Things to ask yourself about your writing.
*Does each piece of writing contain a topic statement in the first paragraph?
*Does each paragraph have a topic sentence?
*Are related ideas grouped in the same paragraph?
*Do all sentences in the paragraph support the topic sentence? Is there a clear progression from one idea to the next, from one paragraph to the next (perhaps using first, next, then, & finally)
*Do all the paragraphs support the topic sentence?
Intended to explain or describe
(of a word or form) denoting or referring to just one person or thing
A word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen
A person or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with.
A plural word form
A type of subject where two or more individual noun phrases are coordinated to form a single, larger noun phrase
Compound subjects cause many difficulties in the proper usage of grammatical agreement between the subject and other entities (verbs, pro nouns, etc)
(Main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself, also known as a simple sentence. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate; it makes sense by itself
Are clauses that express a complete thought. They can function as sentences.
Do not express a complete thought & cannot function as sentences
is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Whatever exists, we assume, can be named, and that name is a noun.
a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become,happen.
a name used for an individual person, place, or organization, spelled with initial capital letters, e.g.,Larry, Mexico, and Boston Red Sox.
When using a noun to describe another noun, the first noun is "acting as" an adjective, e.g., Love story
They have a singular form & a plural form. They usually refer to things. Most countable nouns become plural by adding s at the end
They only have a singular form NO plurals. Usually refer to abstractions (confidence or advice) or collectives ( equipment or luggage)
In the active voice the object receives the action of the verb, e.g., Cats(subject) eat(verb) fish(object)
In passive voice the subject receives the action of the verb, e.g., Fish (subject) are eaten (verb) by cats (object)
Describe or give information about nouns or pronouns. (age, size, color, etc) Some show what somebody thinks about something or somebody. (nice, horrid, beautiful, etc)
Different types of adjectives
1. Numeric: six, one hundred & one
2. Quantitative: more, all, some, half, more than enough
3. Qualitative: color, size, smell, etc
4. Interrogative: which, whose, what
5. Demonstrative: this, that, those, these
An introduction should answer 3 questions. 1. What am I talking about in this paper. 2. How am I going to talk about it. 3. What am I going to prove in this paper
Everything between your intro & conclusion & where you discuss your three main points 1. Introduce your point 2. Explain your point 3. Give supporting evidence 4. Explain how the point & evidence relate to your thesis
Restates the intro. Use questions 1, 2, & 3 also helps trace your argument.
Easy Essay Format
2. Main point
II Point One
1. Intro & Explanation
3. How point relates to thesis
IV Point Three
1. Intro & Explanation
3. How point relates to thesis
1. Restate Subject
2. Summarize main points
3. Restate thesis
The Writing Process
Cognitive research, recursive process, thesis statement, rough draft, revise 1. Brainstorm 2. Write draft 3. Revise
Before following 3-step writing process; preliminary points to be looked at.
*Try to relate to the reader & look at things from their prospective.
(Who is my audience? Are you writing for general audience, customers, clients, children, men, or women only? Will this audience understand your writing, or will you have to use a different vocabulary or structure to make yourself clearer?)
Before brainstorming you must have an idea of which direction this piece will go.
What is the main purpose of this piece, its main point or the opinion I'm going to support? Is the purpose to persuade or inform, compare, or contrast different ideas? (Once you've decided on a purpose, topic, main point, or opinion. Then you're ready for the first step in the writing process)
Use a comma before any coordinating conjunction
And, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. That links 2 independent clauses
Use a comma after a dependent clause....
That starts a sentence
Rule #1 Use commas to...
Offset appositives from the rest of the sentence
Rule #2 Commas should also be used to
Separate items in a series
Rule #3 Another way to use commas is to
Use them after introductory adverbs
Rule #4 Also use commas when...
Rule #5 Commas should always be used to
Separate each element in an address, also after a city state combination within a sentence & to separate elements in a full date (weekday, month, day & year) separate a combination of those elements from the rest of the sentence w/comma
Informal writing structure
Purpose of writing structure
Introduce topic to get reader interested and then state thesis. Show proof to back up thesis. Restate the thesis & summarize proof.
Make organizing easier
Gather information with prewriting list, brainstorming, graphic organizers, Venn diagram. Use flash cards, verbalize as you create, think of your hand as a 5 paragraph essay (thumb=intro, 3 fingers=body, pinky finger=conclusion)
(The writing process)
Decide why you are writing & who will read it.
Choose a topic.
Organize your ideas
Use your notes from prewriting.
Get your ideas down on paper. *Don't worry about mistakes
Add details & ideas.
Delete ideas that are off topic.
Substitute more interesting words.
Rearrange sentences or parts of sentences
Check your spelling.
Fix punctuation mistakes.
Fix capitalization mistakes.
Fix other grammar mistakes
Choose a format.
Neatly print or type a final draft. *Add visuals
*Share with your audience
(GED writing test) Intro
Thesis statement state 3 ideas
Middle paragraph idea #1
Topic sentence (what paragraph is about) /development & detail (evidence to prove your idea)
Middle paragraph idea #2
Topic sentence (what the whole paragraph is about) & development & detail
Middle paragraph idea #3
Topic sentence/development & detail
Reminder of thesis statement/Restate 3 ideas/wrap up essay
For a higher score make sure
Your paragraphs are 4-6 sentences long
Organize piece of writing is easier to read, writing is partly inspiration but needs a plan to organize, all good writing has a set structure
It's important to introduce the topic in such a way as to get the audience comfortable with it, having a sens of purpose always affects structure
Point #1 to remember
The purpose of business writing is to evaluate products, people, opportunities, & or influence what people think, feel, or do
Point #2 to remember
Personal writings purpose is to inform, entertain, and clarify
Point #3 to remember
Effective writing is where you "show" rather than merely "tell"
Punctuation mark tips
Never be afraid to have short sentences in your writing by splitting up long sentences that contain several points. Clear & concise is the way to go with briefer statements, as apposed to a one page paragraph w/twenty words per sentence
Use a period to end a complete thought whether is a simple, complex, compound sentence, declarative, imperative, or rhetorical question
If a sentence ends in a quote
Put a period inside the quotation mark
The exclamation point(!)
Its purpose is to show strong emotion or to give a command. Occasionally, it shows irony
The exclamation point(!) goes inside the quotation marks if
It refers to the quote, but outside if it doesn't
A question mark(?) is used to show
Disbelief or to acquire information, it can be used in a series of questions, in the middle of a sentence. While it is used for direct questions, it is not used for indirect or rhetorical questions
Instead of trying to remember every rule, when unsure, just silently read the sentence & see where you would naturally pause.
Used to avoid run-on sentences by joining independent clauses that have a close relationship to each other but do not have a conjunction. Many people however choose to make these separate sentences
Used in expression of time to separate hours, minutes, seconds, e.g., 3:00 mins
"Quotation marks "
Used in a direct quote to show the exact words of the speaker. They are not used in an indirect quote.
Are used primarily for 2 purposes: To divide up words into syllables at the end of a line - as shown in dictionary & to create hyphenated words
Are used in the middle of a sentence to show that there's omitted material, or at the end of a sentence to show the sentence is trailing off, e.g., The inn keeper....never turned anyone away
Used primarily to show possession and to form contractions, e.g., Carol's cat or seven O' clock
Parentheses ( )
Used to set off numbers or letters in a list, or to include extra information in a sentence, e.g., John showed up to the party uninvited (he sure made everybody mad!) he was asked to leave or (I) (A) (B) (4)