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AP Psychology Unit 10 Flashcards
by Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (87)
an individuals's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Freud's Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious (module heading)
Psychoanalytic Theory's Core Ideas (heading)
How did Sigmund Freud's treatment of psychological disorders lead to his view of the unconscious mind?
-during Freud's times of Victorian era, it was a time of sexual repression and male dominance. Long before university, Freud showed signs of independence and brilliance.
- He faced patients whose disorders made no neurological sense. Observing patients led Freud to his discovery of the unconscious. He speculated that lost feeling in one's hand might be caused by a fear of touching one's genitals.
-After unsuccessful trials with hypnosis, he turned to free association.
-Came up with psychoanalysis
-Conscious is the part of the iceberg that is above water.
- The remembered content (manifest content) he believed to be a censored expression of the dreamer's unconscious wishes (latent content).
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.; Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in a preconscious area.
Personality Structure (sub-heading)
What was Freud's view of personality?
- In Freud's view, human personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint-between our pleasure-seeking biological urges and our internalized social control over these urges. He came up with three interacting systems: the id, ego, and superego.
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according the Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.; those who think of present rather than future time perspective- drink and smoke now without thinking of future happiness.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.; Contains our partly conscious perception, thoughts, and judgments. ; it is the personality executive, mediating the id and superego.
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations.; tho voice of our moral compass that forces the ego to consider not only the real but the ideal.
Personality Development (sub-heading)
What developmental stages did Freud propose?
-Freud was convinced that personality forms during life's first few years. He said that children went through psychosexual stages, during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on different areas of the body called erogenous zones.
-oral (pleasure on the mouth- sucking, chewing), anal (pleasure on bowel and bladder elimination), phallic (pleasure zone in genitals, dealing with incestuous sexual feelings), latency (dormant sexual feelings), genital (maturation of sexual interests)
-believed that our early childhood relations especially with our parents influence our developing identity.
-At any point in one of the stages, strong conflict could lock or fixate, the person's pleasure seeking energies in that stage.
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
according to Freud, boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.; part of phallic stage
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.; that's when the children start identifying with the same-sex parent.
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
Defense Mechanisms (sub-heading)
How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety?
-Freud proposed that the ego protects itself with defense mechanisms- tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality.
-For Freud, all defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously.
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.; apparently underlies all the other defense mechanisms. Repressed urges may come as slips of the tongue or as symbols in dreams
Evaluating Freud's Psychoanalytic Perspective (heading)
How do contemporary psychologists view Freud's psychoanalysis?
Modern Research Contradicts Many of Freud's Ideas (sub-heading)
-Recent research contradicts many of his specific ideas.
-today's developmental psychologists see development as lifelong, not fixed in childhood. Many are skeptical of his theory on sexuality and the importance parental influence, rather than peer influence.
-Also little support for Freud's idea that defense mechanisms disguise sexual and aggressive impulses.
-Freud's theories were merely based on a few objective observations.
-The most serious problem with his theory is that it offers the after-the-fact explanations of any characteristic yet fails to predict such behaviors and traits. It's like betting on a horse after the race has been run.
Modern Research Challenges the Idea of Repression (sub-heading)
-Today's researchers agree that we sometimes spare our egos by neglecting threatening information. Yet many contend that repression is a rare mental response to a terrible trauma. Far more common reality is that high stress enhance memory.
Psychodynamic Theories and Modern Views of the Unconscious (module heading)
modern-day approaches that view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.
The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists
Which of Freud's ideas did his followers accept or reject?
-Neo-Freudians accepted Freud's basic ideas: id, ego, an superego; importance of unconscious; and shaping of personality in childhood; and defense mechanisms. But they broke off from him in two important ways. First, they placed more emphasis on the conscious mind's role in interpreting experience. Seconds, they doubted that sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations.
- Adler and Horney agreed with Freud that childhood is important. But they believed that childhood social tensions are crucial for personality. Horney attempted to balance the bias she detected in Freud's masculine view of psychology.
-Carl Jung placed less emphasis on social factors. He believed that the unconscious contains more than just our repressed thoughts and feelings. He believed that we have a collective unconscious. He said that collective unconscious explains why spiritual concerns are deeply rooted.
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
Assessing Unconscious Processes (heading)
What are projective tests, how are they used, and what are some criticisms of them?
-Psychologists want a test that digs into the unconscious.
- critics say that these tests have demonstrated validity, but do not yield consistent results. For example, inkblot tests diagnose many adults as pathological.
a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics. ; TAT; Rorschach inkblot test;
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
The Modern Unconscious Mind (heading)
How has modern research developed our understanding of the unconscious?
-Many agree that we have limited access to all that goes on in our minds.
-Many of today's researchers now think of the unconscious not as seething passions and repressive censoring but as cooler information processing that occurs without our awareness. The unconscious also involves the schemas that control our perceptions, the priming by stimuli, the implicit memories, the emotions that activate instantly, the right-brain activity, the self-concept and stereotypes that unconsciously influence how we process information.
-researchers have also supported Freud's idea of our unconscious defense mechanisms.
-recent history has supported Freud's idea that we unconsciously defend ourselves against anxiety.; terror-management theory; faced with a threatening world, people enhance self-esteem and want answers to life's meaning.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share out beliefs and our behaviors.; People who cheat on their taxes tend to think many others do likewise.
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
Humanistic Theories (module heading)
How did humanistic psychologists view personality, and what was their goal in studying personality?
-In contrast to behaviorism's scientific objectivity, they studied people through their own self-reported experiences and feelings.
-Two pioneers were Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth.
Abraham Maslow's Self-Actualizing Person (heading)
-Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs.
-Maslow developed his ideas by studying healthy, creative people rather than troubled clinical cases. He observed how self-actualized people were self-aware and self-accepting, loving, secure in who they were, and their interests were problem-centered rather than self-centered. They prefer a few deep relationships rather than many superficial ones.
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Perspective (heading)
-Carl Rogers agreed with much of Maslow's thinking. He believed that people are basically good. Rogers' person-centered perspective held that a growth-promoting climate required three thing: genuineness, acceptance (when people are accepting, they offer unconditional positive regard), and empathy
-For Rogers and Maslow, a central feature of personality is one's self-concept. If our self-concept is postive, we tend to perceive the world positively.
Assessing the Self (heading)
How did humanistic psychologists asses a person's sense of self?
-Humanistic psychologists sometimes assessed personality by asking people to fill out questionnaires that evaluated self-concept. Critics say that these assessments is depersonalizing, so they suggest interviews and intimate conversation.
Evaluating Humanistic Theories (heading)
How have humanistic theories influenced psychology? What criticisms have they faced?
- Humanistic psychology has influenced much of today's popular psychology.
-Criticisms include that its concepts are vague and subjective. They also say how individualism encouraged by humanistic psychology can lead to self-indulgence and selfishness. Others say how humanistic psychology is naive, that it fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil.
-Humanistic psychologists reply that a secure, nondefensive self-acceptance is actually the first step toward loving others.
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
How do psychologists use traits to describe personality?
- Allport, after interviewing Freud, described personality in terms of fundamental traits-people's characteristic behaviors and conscious motives. He was concerned less with explaining individual traits than with describing them.
-The Myers-Birggs Type Indicator (MBTI) attempted to sort people according to Carl Jung's personality types.
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Exploring Traits (heading)
-By placing people are placed on several trait dimensions simultaneously, psychologists can describe countless individual personality variations.
Factor Analysis (sub-heading)
-One technique to condense the list of manageable traits is factor analysis, a statistical procedure used to identify clusters of test items that tap basic components of intelligence. Eysenck believed that we can reduce many of our variations to 2 or 3 dimensions, including extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.
Biology and Personality (sub-heading)
-Some studies indicate that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. PET scans show that a frontal lobe area is less active in extraverts than in introverts. Dopamine tend to be higher in extraverts.
-Our biology also influences our personality in other ways. Differences in children's shyness can be attributed to their autonomic nervous system reactivity. Given a reactive autonomic nervous system, we respond to stress with greater anxiety.
-There are personality differences in other animals as well. By selective breeding, researchers can produce bold or shy birds.
Assessing Traits (heading)
What are personality inventories, and what are their strengths and weaknesses as trait-assessment tools?
- personality inventories
-the classic personality inventory is the MMPI. It assess "abnormal" personality tendencies rather than normal personality traits.
-(astrologers and palm readers are pretty much phonies)
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.; in contrast to subjectively on most projective tests, personality inventories are scored objectively- so that a computer can score them. But it does not guarantee validity.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
The Big Five Factors (heading)
Which traits seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation?
- The Big Five has been the most active personality research topic and is currently our best approximation of the basic trait dimensions.
-In adulthood, the Big Five traits are quite stable, with some tendencies waning a bit during early and middle adulthood. Conscientiousness and agreeableness tend to increase as you get older.
-Heritability varies with the diversity of people studied.
- The Big Five traits predict our actual behaviors.
Evaluating Trait Theories
Does research support the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations?
The Person-Situation Controversy (sub-heading)
-Our behavior is influenced by the interaction of our inner disposition with our environment. It is consistent and inconsistent. As people grow older, their personality tends to stabilizes.
-Most people would say that our personality is consistent.
-Although our personality traits may be both stable and potent, the consistency of our specific behaviors from one situation to the next is another matter. It can be inconsistent in this scope.
-Our traits can lurk into our music, bedrooms and offices, and electric communication.
- In unfamiliar, formal situations, our traits remain hidden as we carefully attend to social cues.
Social-Cognitive Theories and Exploring the Self (module heading)
Social-Cognitive Theories (heading)
Who first proposed the social-cognitive perspective, and how do social-cognitive theorists view personality development?
- Today's psychological science view individuals as biopsychosocial organisms.
-those who take the behavioral approach to personality development emphasize the effects of learning. We learn from others.
-Social-cognitive theorists focus on how we and our environment interact.
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.; introduced by Albert Bandura
in personality theory, this perspective focuses on the effects of learning on our personality development.
Reciprocal Influences (sub-heading)
- Bandura views the person-environment interaction as reciprocal determinism.
-3 ways in which individuals and environments interact: Different people choose different environments, our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, and our personalities help create situations to which we react.
-In such ways, we are both the products and the architects of our environments.
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
Optimism Versus Pessimism (sub-heading)
-More pessimist students get lower grades than those who adopt a more hopeful attitude that effort and good study habits can make a difference.
-Success requires enough optimism to provide hope and enough pessimism to prevent complacency. (Asians have great academic achievements even though they are more pessimistic than the whites)
-Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks. Our natural positive-thinking bias can promote an unrealistic optimism about future life events.
-Our natural positive-thinking bias does seem to vanish when we are bracing ourselves for feedback, such as test results.
Blindness to One's Own Incompetence
-Ironically, most people are often most overconfident when most incompetent. They found that most students scoring at the low end of grammar tests believed they had scored in the top half.
-Our ignorance of what we don;t know helps sustain our confidence in our own abilities.
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.
Assessing Behavior in Situations (sub-heading)
How do social-cognitive researchers explore behavior, and what criticism have they faced?
- To predict behavior, social-cognitive psychologists often observe behavior in realistic situations.
-Modern studies indicate that assessment center exercises are more revealing of visible dimensions than others. (like when U.S. used stimulated undercover missions rather than pencil and paper tests to test the spy candidates.)
-These principles say that the best means of predicting future behavior is the person's past behavior patterns in similar situations.
Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories (sub-heading)
-Critics charge that social-cognitive theories focus so much on the situation that they fail to appreciate the person's inner traits.
Exploring the Self (heading)
Why has psychology generated so much research on the self? How important is self-esteem to psychology and to human well-being?
-One example of thinking about self is the concept of possible selves put forth. Your possible selves include your visions of the self you dream of becoming and the one you fear of becoming and others ones as well. Such possible selves motivate us by laying out specific goals.
-Our self-focused perspective may motivate us, but can also lead us to presume too readily that others are noticing and evaluating us.
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).; when students wore a T-shirt with Barry Manilow's face on it and only 23% took note of the shirt. ; fewer people notice than we presume.
The Benefits of Self-Esteem (sub-heading)
-Children's academic self-efficacy-their confidence that they can do well in a subject-predicts school achievement.
-However, experiments do reveal an effect of low self-esteem. Temporarily deflate people's self-image and they will be more likely to disparage others. Those who are negative about themselves also tend to be oversensitive and judgmental.
one's feelings of high or low self-worth.
one's sense of competence and effectiveness.
Self-Serving Bias (sub-heading)
What evidence reveals self-serving bias, and how do defensive and secure self-esteem differ?
- People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, and for successes than for failures.
- Most people see themselves as better than average.
-The phenomenon, which reflects the overestimation of self rather than the underestimation of others is less striking in Asia, where people value modesty.
-Ironically, people even see themselves as more immune than others to self-serving bias.
-Threatened egotism, more than low self-esteem, predisposes aggression. Adults and adolescents who find their self-esteem threatened by insults, may react violently if they have a large ego.
-Some believe that self-serving perceptions are on the rise in North America.
-Narcissism is also rising.
-Defensive self-esteem is fragile. It focuses on sustaining itself, which makes failures feel threatening. Secure self-esteem is less fragile, because it is less contingent on external evaluations.
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
excessive self-love and self-absorption.
Culture and Self (sub-heading)
How do individualist and collectivist cultures influence people?
- Individualists give relatively greater priority to personal goals and define their identity mostly in terms of personal attributes. Individualists share the need to belong. When they join groups, they are less focused on group harmony than doing their duty to the group. They more easily move in and out of social groups. They even prefer unusual names. Costs include more loneliness and higher divorce rates and more demands for more romance and personal fulfillment in marriage.
-Collectivists have deeper, more stable attachments to their groups-their family, clan, or company. Valuing communal solidarity means placing a premium on preserving group spirit and ensuring that others never lose face. They often defer to others' wishes and display a polite, self-effacing humility. They are shyer around strangers.
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than groups identifications.
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
he came up with his theory of personality called psychoanalysis.
agreed with Freud that childhood is important, but believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation.
agreed with Freud that childhood is important, but believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation. Said that childhood anxiety triggers our desire for love ans security.
he believed that the unconscious contains more than our repressed thoughts and feelings. He believed that we had a collective unconscious.
he proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. He based his description of self-actualization on a study of those who seemed notable for their rich and productive lives.
he believed that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies.
came up with the "Big Five" factors. Work by him shows that where we fall on these five dimensions reveals much of what there is to say about our personality.
came up with the "Big Five" factors. Work by him shows that where we fall on these five dimensions reveals much of what there is to say about our personality.
proposed the social-cognitive perspective on personality. It emphasizes that interaction of our traits with our situations.
he believes that thriving Western cultures have a parallel opportunity to create a more positive psychology- a psychology concerned with not only weakness and damage, but also with strength and virtue.
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