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Anatomy and Pysiology

chapter 1,2.3
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nucleic acids
polymer of nucleotides..store and process information that regulate the synthsis of protiens and make up the genetic material in cells (CARBON, HYDROGEN OXYGEN,NITROGENS and PHOSHOUs
DNA
a Nucleic Acid consisting of a double chain of nucleotides that contain, sugar, adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
RNA
a Nucleic Acid -single chain of nucleotides
Histone
proteins associated with DNA of nucleus, the DNA strand are wound around them
Plasma Membrane
a cell membrane
PH
indicated by concentration hydrogen ions it contains
Acid
releases hydrogen ions
Base
removes hydrogen ions from solution..
Buffers
coumpounds that stabilizes that PH of a solution by removing/releasing hydrogen ions
Carbohydrates
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1
Lipids...
include fats, oils and waxes: most are water insolluable. fatty acids eicosanoids, glycerides, steroids and phosholipids and gycolipids.
Proteins
perform a variety of functions...they are a chain of amino acids proteins are polypetides containing over 100 amino acids...
Amino Acid
organic compound The key elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
cations
ions with a positive charge
anions
ions with a negative charge
covalent bonds
chemical bond that shares electrons
ionic bond
molecular bond created by the attraction between ions of opposite charge .
Valence electrons
electrons of an atom that participate in the formation of chemical bonds
Neutrons
reside in the nucleus of an atom neutral charge
Protons
reside in the nucleus of an atom - positive charge
Electrons
orbits protons of nuclueus...NEGATIVE CARGE
Atoms
smallest unit of matter
Isotopes
atoms of the same element containing same # of protons but different # of neutrons (thus different atomic weight)
ELEMENT
pure substance ...atoms of only one kind
Serous membrane
Lines walls of internal cavities...
Mucus Membrane
Lines walls of digestive, respiratory, reproduction, and urinary..tracts
Homeostasis
body's ability to maintain stable environment
Organelles
intracellualr structures that performs a specific function or group of functions
Nucleus
cellualr organelle that contains DNA, RNA and proteins, in the CNA a mass of Grey Matter
Cytoskeleton
Network of microtubes and micorfilament in the cytoplasm
Golgi
organelle stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers.. function storage, alteration, and packagin gof secretory products and lysosomes (secreatory vesicles)
ER
network of membranous channels in the cytoplasm of a cell that function in intracelluar transport, sythesis storage pacaging ad secretion
Lysosome
intracelluar vesicle containing digestive enzymes/removes damaged organelles or pathogens
Mitocondria
double membrane with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclusing important metabolic enzymes.. function: to produce 95% of ATP required by the CELL
Rough ER
modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins
Smooth ER
synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates..
Centioles,
organelle composed of 9 microtubes (3 in each group) function in Mitosis or Meiosis by organizing the spindle apparatus
transcription
the encoding of genetic instructions of a strand of mRNA
translation
the process of peptide formation from the instructions carried by an mRNA strand
differenciation
characteristic cellular specialization
Mitosis
division of a single cell nucleus that produces 2 indentical daughter nuclei
Cytokinesis
cytoplasmic movement that separates 2 daughter cells at the completion of Mitosis..