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any difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language; difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, and spelling. to be classified as a learning disability, the problem may not come from visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation, or any economic or cultural disadvantage
a category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell
also known as developmental arithmetic disorder; a disability that involves difficulty in math computation
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
emotional and behavioral disorders
serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression, depression, fears associated with personal or school matters, as well as other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics
autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
also called pervasive developmental disorders, they range from the severe disorder labeled autistic disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome. Children with these problems are characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors
a severe autism spectrum disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior
a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships
individualized education plan
a written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored to a child with a disability
least restrictive environment
a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children that do not have disabilities are educated
developmentalists who argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable revision. they have elaborated on Piaget's theory, giving more emphasis to information processing, strategies, and precise cognitive steps
a relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time
fuzzy trace theory
states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: 1. verbatim memory trace and 2. gist. in this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information
being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activities and tasks
the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems
thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking tested by standardized tests
thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is a characteristic of creativity
a technique in which an individual is encouraged to come up with creative ideas in group and play off other's ideas
problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to the experiences of everyday life
mental age (MA)
Binet's measure of an individual's level of mental development, compared with that of others
a symmetrical distribution with most scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and few scores appearing toward each extreme
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional test of intelligence and has difficulty adapting to life
retardation that is characterized by no evidence of organic brain damage but the individual has an IQ between 50 and 70
refers to knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language
an approach to reading instruction based on the idea that instruction should parallel children's natural language learning. reading materials should be whole and meaningful
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