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the study of heredity


offspring with genetically different parents


sections of DNA found on the chromosome


description of an individuals particular combination of alleles (genetic makeup- can not see with eyes)


organisms that have 2 same factors for a trait

dominant allele

allele that expresses its phenotypic affect (shows physically)

principle of segregation

describes how inheritance of traits are passed

punnett square

table that predicts the likelihood/probability that a trait will show up in an offspring

polygenic trait

a trait controlled by 2 or more genes


mixture of traits (2 alleles show like a zebra)

sex-linked traits

traits linked by their sex chromosomes

Gregor Mendel

austrian monk who was first to describe how traits were passed


offspring with genetically same parents (HOMOZYGOUS)


alternate form of a gene that determines characteristics


individuals appearance (determined by dominant allele)


organisms with 2 different factors for a trait (Tt)

recessive allele

an allele who's phenotype traits are not expressed

principle of independent assortment

an allele pair separate independently during the formation of gametes

test cross

crossing of an organism with an unknown genotype with a recessive

incomplete dominance

mixed (red flowers+ white flowers= pink flowers)

multiple alleles

presence of 2 or more allels for a genetic trait

autosomal traits

traits carried on all other chromosomes besides sex chromosomes

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