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22 terms

genetics

STUDY
PLAY
genetics
the study of heredity
hybrid
offspring with genetically different parents
genes
sections of DNA found on the chromosome
genotype
description of an individuals particular combination of alleles (genetic makeup- can not see with eyes)
homozygous
organisms that have 2 same factors for a trait
dominant allele
allele that expresses its phenotypic affect (shows physically)
principle of segregation
describes how inheritance of traits are passed
punnett square
table that predicts the likelihood/probability that a trait will show up in an offspring
polygenic trait
a trait controlled by 2 or more genes
codominance
mixture of traits (2 alleles show like a zebra)
sex-linked traits
traits linked by their sex chromosomes
Gregor Mendel
austrian monk who was first to describe how traits were passed
purebred
offspring with genetically same parents (HOMOZYGOUS)
alleles
alternate form of a gene that determines characteristics
phenotype
individuals appearance (determined by dominant allele)
heterozygous
organisms with 2 different factors for a trait (Tt)
recessive allele
an allele who's phenotype traits are not expressed
principle of independent assortment
an allele pair separate independently during the formation of gametes
test cross
crossing of an organism with an unknown genotype with a recessive
incomplete dominance
mixed (red flowers+ white flowers= pink flowers)
multiple alleles
presence of 2 or more allels for a genetic trait
autosomal traits
traits carried on all other chromosomes besides sex chromosomes