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Some genes contain instructions for controlling when our cells grow, divide, and die. Certain genes that promote cell division are called oncogenes. Others that slow down cell division, or cause cells to die at the right time, are called tumor suppressor genes. It is known that cancers can be caused by DNA mutations (changes) that “turn on” oncogenes or “turn off ” tumor suppressor genes. The BRCA genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are tumor suppressor genes. When they are mutated, they no longer function to suppress abnormal growth and breast cancer is more likely to develop. Certain inherited DNA changes can result in a high risk for the development of breast cancer in people who carry these genes and are responsible for the cancers that run in some families. How could oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play a part in the development of breast cancer? Use what you know about molecular genetics to write an essay explaining how these genes might contribute to the formation of tumors.
Consider the pressure-driven flow between stationary parallel plates separated by distance b. Coordinate y is measured from the bottom plate. The velocity field is given by u=U(y/b)[1-(y/b)]. Obtain an expression for the circulation about a closed contour of height h and length L. Evaluate when h=b/2 and when h=b. Show that the same result is obtained from the area integral of the Stokes Theorem .