World History Indo-Europeans
Terms in this set (125)
3200-2350 BCE: Sumerians
2334-2315 BCE: Sargon
1792-1750 BCE: Hammurabi
1700-1200 BCE: Hittie
1000-612 BCE: Assyrian
1000-970BCE: King david
1000-930: King Solomon
722 BCE: Assyrian conquest of Israel
600-550 BCE: New babylonian empire
Mesopotamia: "the land between the rivers"
Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates
large columes of fresh water
Little rain, so area needs irrigation (small scale by 6000 B.C.E.)
Food supplies increase
Human population increases
Migrants to the area increase--especially Semites
Sumer (in south) becomes population center
Cities began envolving since 4000BCE
Governments sponsor building projects and irrigation
Attacks by others led to wall building and military development
Kingships evolve with cooperation of noble families
earliest urban-based society
spoke semithic languages(Hebrew)
were nomadic herders
wealth attracted intrest
Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 B.C.E.)
creator of first empire
force cooperation and other places to provide support
controling and taxing trade
Coup against king of Kish
Seizes trade routes and natural resources
Gradually empire weakens and collapses about 2000 B.C.E.
Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.E.)
Centralizes the bureaucracy and regulates taxation
Capital is Babylon
promote welfare of the people
Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E.
Law of Codes
1. law of retribution
importance of social status (how rich got away easily)
local judges did not always folor the law
Death: murder, theft, fraud, false accusation
and sheltering slaves
laws regulating commercial transactions, wages, and prices
Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 1300-612 B.C.E.
Cities: Assur and Ninevah
Powerful army: professional officers (merit), chariots, archers, iron weapons
wealth and comfort in it's heartlands
Unpopular rule leads to rebellions; ends 612 B.C.E.
New Babylonian empire, 600-550 B.C.E
Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.E.)
Hanging gardens of palace shows wealth and luxury
era of Chaldeans
Economic specialization and trade
Bronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural tools
Iron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools (latest invention)
Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade; carts can carry more goods further (earliest invention)
Shipbuilding: maritime trade increases in all directions; network develops
The emergence of a stratified patriarchal society
Cities: more opportunities to accumulate wealth
Kings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family and supporters) are highest class
Priests and priestesses rule temple communities with large incomes and staff
Free commoners (peasants), dependent clients (no property); pay taxes and labor on building projects
Slaves (POWs, criminals, debt servitude): mostly domestic servants
Hammurabi's code: men are head of the household
Women get fewer rights after 2000 B.C.E.; by 1500 B.C.E. are wearing veils
Early Hebrews are pastoral nomads between Mesopotamia and Egypt (second millennium B.C.E.)
Settle in some cities
Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E.
Descendents borrow law of retribution and flood story from Mesopotamia
Some migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century B.C.E. then back to Palestine with Moses
Twelve tribes become Israelites
Mesopotamian-style monarchs with Jerusalem as capital
David (1000-970 B.C.E.) then Solomon (970-930 B.C.E.)
Experienced return of jews
exiles for beliving Yan-weh
Conquer Israel in north and Judah in south and destroy Jerusalem
Deportees return to Judea; become known as Jews (586 B.C.E.)
Prophets in this period increase devotion of people
Build distinct Jewish community in Judea with strong group identity
Moses and monotheism
Ten Commandments: moral and ethical standards for followers
Compilation of teachings into Torah (1000-400 B.C.E.)
First settlers about 3000 B.C.E.; develop into kingdoms of independent city-states
Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networks
between Mediterran sea and Lebanon mountrains
Overland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on culture
Sea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goods
Have early alphabetical script (1500 )
Linguists discover similarities between many languages; they must be related
Originate in steppes of central Asia
pastoral people; 4500-2500 B.C.E.
Domesticate horses; learn to ride; use horses with carts, then chariots
Indo-European expansion and its effects
Indo-European society breaks up about 3000 B.C.E.; peoples gradually migrate
Some migrate into central Asia by 2000 B.C.E.
Other migrations: Greece, Italy, central Europe, western Europe, Britain
All pastoral agriculturalists
All speak related languages and worship similar deities
Later wave of migrations to Iran and India ("Aryan")
Horses was key element in the expansion of the Indo-Europeans from their homeland was
INDO-EUROPEANS: did not go to east or southeast Asia
Hittites settle in central Anatolia about 2000 B.C.E.
Build powerful kingdoms
Conquer Babylonian empire 1595 B.C.E.
Dissolve by about 1200 B.C.E.
Technology: light horse-drawn chariots (spokes)
Written Cultural Traditions
Lit: astronomy, mathematics , abstract (gilgunmesh)
Cuneiform: writing system, depending on pictures
wedged shaped pressed in clay and than baked
used in commercial and tax documents
commercial and taxation documents
documents on astronomy and mathematics
a king of the city-state of Uruk.
B) hero in a popular Mesopotamian epic.
C) a warrior in conflict with the city of Kish.
D) legendary loyal friend of Enkidu.
E) all of the answers are correct.
A group pf semi-nomadic peoples who, around 2000 B.C.E., began to migrate from central Asia to India, Europe, and the Middle East
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria.
A region lying the the strategic intersection of Asia and Europe. In the early 1300s, the region was bordered by the declining Christian Byzantine Empire to the west and by Muslim empires to the east. To the north, beyond the Black Sea, lay Russia.
An Indo-European people who, about 1500 B.C. began to migrate into the Indian subcontinent
A Seafaring and Trading People that Lived on the Island of Crete from about 2000-1400 BC
An ancient Minoan city on the island of Crete
An early trading civilization located in present day Lebanon and Syria along the Mediterranean. They produced various products, such as glass, papyrus scrolls, and dyes, and established trade across the entire Mediterranean Sea. Phoenician trade is responsible for the great exchange of ideas and culture that occurred during this time period. Created the first alphabet that was based on sound not symbols.
A region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea where the Phoenicians lived who disputed with Israel.
A kingdom that the Israelites built along the Mediterranean sea in southwest Asia, known as the promise land to the Hebrews
(1500s-1400s BCE) Hebrew prophet and lawgiver; according to the Bible, he led the Hebrew people out of Egypt and back to Canaan in the Exodus. According to the Bible, it was during this journey that he recieved the Ten Commandments from G-d.
An ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and re-established by the Jewish people following the second world war.
A king of the Minoans who legend has it owned a half-human, half-bull monster called the "Minotaur" The minotaur is very important in Minoan culture, Minoans worship and sacrifice for the bull.
A Hebrew kingdom in Palestine, established around 922 B.C.
Father of the Hebrew people
founder of Buddhism, born a prince, he left his family and wealth to find the cause of human suffering
Epic of Gilgamesh
the epic of Gilgamesh is made up of stories recounting the adventures of Gilgamesh, the fifth king of the city of Uruk (ruling around 2750 BCE) , and his sidekick Enkidu. This epic created in Mesopotamia and nearly all of Gilgamesh and Enkidu's adventures took place here. The epic of Gilgamesh is significant because of its preservation and exploration of early human social tendencies.
Mesopotamia literally translates to 'the land between two rivers.' Due to its location between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Mesopotamia is a section of the Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia was on of the first geographic locations to hold cities and paved the way to many modern innovation, such as irrigation (6000 BCE). In addition, Mesopotamia was divided by many empires throughout time.
In Southern Mesopotamia from 3200 to 2350 BCE Sumer was established as a state. In Sumer, they made irrigation systems to support agriculture and military. It was one of the first major societies and created many technological advances
Ziggurats were distinctive stepped pyramids that housed temples and altars to honor the principal local deity (gods or goddesses). They were first developed in Mesopotamia around 3200 BCE and constructed by thousands of laborers
Sargon of Akkad
was known as the 'creator of empire' in ancient Mesopotamia. While his exact location is unknown, he began his career in Kish around 2370 BCE. He was a brilliant warrior, and accumulated a massive army. He organized a coup against the king of Kish and gained power to conquer all Sumerian city-states.
Code of Hammurabi
1792-1750 BCE; the code relied heavily on 'lex talionis' the 'law of retaliation', but local judges did not always follow the prescriptions of Hammurabi's code. Hammurabi proclaimed that the gods ha chosen him to 'promote the welfare of the people'. This was the most significant code of ancient Mesopotamia.
after the collapse of the Babylonian empire (1300 BCE), Assyrians gradually extended their authority to much of Southwest Asia. Their high point was during the 7th and 8th millenium BCE in Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, much of Anatolia, and most of Egypt. This empire was ruled by Assurbanipal, who preserved most of the Mesopotamian literature in vast libraries, including the epic of Gilgamesh. The empire collapsed due to internal unrest and external assault.
meaning 'wedge-shaped'. developed by the Sumerians, cuneiform writing was when scribes used a stylus fashioned from a reed to make imprints on wet clay tablets, and later was baked in the sun. Cuneiform represents sounds, syllables, ideas, and physical objects. Initially it was used for receipts, and was later developed for astronomy, mathematics, and reflective literature.
the basis for Hammurabi's code of law during the reign of the Babylonian empire. It means law of retaliation where the offenders suffer punishments resembling their violations. When applied to society, there was an inequality based on social standings
Abraham is referred to as the 'hebrew patriarch' by the Christian Bible. Originally from the city of Ur, but later migrated to Northern Mesopotamia because of Sumerian disorder. he lived during the 19th century BCE. He is important because he was one of the first Hebrews and his descendants carried on his legacy (12 tribes of Israel)
Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt in about 1300 BCE. After departing Egypt, Moses led them to Palestine and taught them monotheism.
the Phoenicians lived in a narrow coastal plain between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Mountains.They spoke a Semitic Language. Their settlements were established after 3000 BCE. Their city-states were ruled by local kings. They were excellent sailors and built the best ships of their time, Phoenician scribes devised an early alphabet script consisting of 22 symbols and no vowels
Enkidu is a character from the epic of gilgamesh. He was made by the gods to oppose Gilgamesh. Enkidu was raised in the forest. He was practically a beast, but was tamed by Shamat and her 'love arts', which was human-like. He later consumer bread and beer transforming him into a real/full human. Enkidu signifies change from hunting and gathering to agriculture because of his change from a beast to a human.
Uruk is an ancient city in Mesopotamia. Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk. Kish was the rial city of Uruk. Uruk was known for its massive walls and magnificent temples for Mesopotamian Deities. Uruk dominated public affairs from 3200 to 2350 BCE.
King Assurbanipal ruled the Assyrian Empire. He called himself the ruler of the universe. He was most remembered for his library in the palace of Nineveh, and his kingdom thrived while he was ruler.
Standard of Ur
The Royal Standard of Ur, produced around 2700 BCE, depicted different levels of society. The highest rank displayed and elaborate banquet, with kings, nobles, priests, and priestesses. The secong rank displayed common folk; craftsmen, builders, and professionals. Dependent clients and slaves were shown as well, both serving and attending to the nobles in the highest rank and participating in trade and business in the second. This artifact, made by the Sumerians in Ur, show the cultural traditions and social distinctions of the time period
Hammurabi ruled the Babylonian Empire from 2350-1600. the Babylonian empire implemented regular taxation and had officials ruling the towns. Empire had the first standard code of law and the capital of Babylon is located near modern day Baghdad.
Men controlled most of society. Mesopotamia built a patriarchal society that controlled public and private affairs. Women did not have the same basic rights as men did, but some women had powerful roles in the government and society.
Abraham led a group from Sumer to Northern Mesopotamia in 1850 BCE, influenced by Mesopotamia, polytheistic beliefs, pastoral nomads from area between Mesopotamia and Egypt. Some migrated to Egypt , Moses led the others back to Palestine and they embraced monotheism
Israelites formed a branch of Hebrews who settled in Palestine (modern day Israel) after 1200 BCE. Isrealites abandones their inherited tribe structure in favor of a Mesopotamian-style monarchy that brought the 12 tribes under united rule. During the reigns of King David, he dominated the territory between Syria and the Sinai Peninsula
The belief in one god. Moses led a part of the Hebrews to Egypt and they changed their view from polytheistic to monotheistic.
the Hittites were some of the most influential Indo-European migrants. they migrated to the central plain of Anatolia in late 1900 BCE. They were responsible for two technological advances; horse drawn war chariots and the refinement of iron metallurgy
the Indo-Europeans originate in the steppes of Central Asia (modern day Ukraine and Russia) Indo-european society breaks u, and people begin to gradually migrate. These migrants depended on a pastoral and agricultural economy. Their language is the background of languages today. They domesticated horses and created war chariots
- Best known individual of ancient Mesopotamian society
- Fifth king of the city of Uruk
- Figure of mythology and folklore as well as history
- Became one of the greatest heroes, Epic of Gilgamesh
- Comes from two Greek words meaning land between the rivers
- Refers to fertile valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
- Produce grew especially fast in the land of Sumer
- Were dominant people
- Built the worlds first cities
- Irrigation systems (supported agriculture and urban society)
- Made the wheel/calendar
- City-states (Ur, Uruk, Nippur, Kish)
- By 3000 BCE, all Sumerian cities had kings
- Speak tongues in the Semitic family of languages including Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician
- Nomadic herders
- Often intermarried with Sumerians and largely adapted to Sumerian ways
Sargon of Akkad
-Creator of 1st empire in Mesopotamia (brilliant warrior and talented administrator)
- At high point of reign, the empire embraced all of Mesopotamia
- Relied heavily on personal presence to maintain stability throughout his realm
- To support his army, he took control and taxed trade
- For several generations Sargon's successors maintained empire, but it soon weakened due to internal and external problems
- Regional empires emerged as Semitic people such as the Akkadians and the Babylonians started to overshadow the Sumerians
- Capital was Akkad
- Political system
- 1st empire
- Babylonian king
- Improved Sargon's administrative techniques by relying on centralised bureaucratic rule and regular taxation
- Ruled from Babylon instead of travelling with army
- Sought to maintain empire by code of law
"law of retaliation"
- Offenders suffered punishments resembling their violations
Babylonian Empire (Semitic)
- Hammurabi's law code
- Dominated Mesopotamia until about 1600 BCE
- Wealth attracted invaders, especially the Hittites who built a power empire in Anatolia (Turkey), Babylon in 1595 BCE crumbled
- Lot of turmoil and no imperial rule until the Assyrians
- Imperial rule returned to Mesopotamia with the Assyrians
-Built flourishing cities at Assur and Nineveh
- Largest army/military machine
- With help of iron weapons, they conquered Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, much of Anatolia, and most of Egypt
- Preserved much of the Mesopotamian literature (library)
- Relied on the administrative techniques from the Babylonians and followed similar laws
- Due to internal unrest and external assault as well, the empire went down in 612 B.C.E
- Built great armies by organising their forces into units and placing them under the command of officers
- Appointed these officers due to skill, merit, or bravery instead of family ties
- Had chariots borrowed from the Hittites
- Use of iron weapons
- 600-550 B.C.E Babylon dominated Mesopotamia again
- King Nebuchadnezzar lavished a lot of wealth to his capital city
- Hanging Gardens of Babylon
- During this time people beyond Mesopotamia had acquired advanced weapons
- Largely lost control of their affairs and foreigners absorbed them
Asiatic invaders who ruled Egypt from about 1640-1570 BC, they were able to gain control due to weak pharaohs and power struggles among rival nobles
1570 - 1075 BC; sought to strengthen Egypt by building an empire; this empire was even more wealthier and powerful then the other two
female pharaoh who encouraged trade instead of waging war
Hatshepsut's son; more warlike with victorious invasions to Palestine and Syria, rumored to have murdered Hatsheput
a region of Africa that straddled the upper Nile River
(1290 - 1224 BC) was a great builder who had enormous statues of himself put on the temples
Nubian kingdom that lasted from 2000 - 1000 BC, empire emerged as a regional power as Egypt declined
overthrew the Libyan dynasty in Egypt and united the Nile River Valley
Nubian city near the Red Sea that became a trading center between Africa, Asia and Egypt
850 BC, acquired a large empire with highly advanced military organization and state-of-the-art weaponry
Assyria's capital along the Tigris River, was surrounded by a huge wall, held the ancient world's largest library, built by King Ashurbanipal
collected more than 20,000 clay tablets from throughout the entire Fertile Crescent
Medes and Chaldeans
SW Asian people who helped destroy the Assyrian Empire
Chaldean king who helped restore the city of Babylon
Persia's king, military genius who led his army to many victories, had a kindness and he governed his empire with a wise and tolerant view,
Cambyses's successor, noble of the ruling dynasty began his career by being one of the king's bodyguards
governor assigned by Darius to rule the local province
road running from Persia to Anatolia
Persian prophet that lived around 600 B.C. that offered an answer to why there was chaos and suffering in the world
China's most influential scholar who lived in the time when the Zhou dynasty was in decline
the respect that children should have for their parents and ancestors
trained civil service or someone who runs the government
philosophy of Laozi that encouraged the search for knowledge and understanding of nature
political thinkers who believed a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties well and harsh punishments for the disobedient
a book of oracles used to solve ethical or practical problems
yin and yang
two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life
300 BC, replaced Zhou Dynasty--this word is the origin of China
Qin ruler that halted internal battles that sapped China's strength, defeated invaders and crushed resistance within China
government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
Because when Thutmose III had gone to Nubia, the people now had people that they could trade with and it gave them wealth
How did the New Kingdom of Egypt become so powerful and wealthy?
The Kushites learned the languages that the Egyptians spoke, they wore their styles of clothing, worshipped the same god and used the same system of hieroglyphic writing
What cultural aspects of Egyptian civilization did the Kushites adopt?
They moved to Meroe and they became active in the trading business
Why was Kush able to thrive after losing Egypt to the Assyrians?
It gave them money and goods for them to give to their military so that they could defend themselves in battle
How did trade help both Egypt and Nubia maintain their dominance in the Nile Region?
The engineers had made pontoons so that they could easily cross rivers. They dug beneath the city walls in an attempt to weaken them. Used battering rams against the door
What methods did the Assyrians use when they attacked enemy cities?
they had a system of governors and they had a system of governmetn management
What contribution to government administration and culture did the Assyrians make?
Because the Assyrians that were ruling were cruel
Why did the people in the region rejoice when the Assyrian Empire was defeated?
They both built something that later became important to the city. Ashurbianipal built a library and Nebuchadnezzar built the hanging gardens
In what ways were King Ashurbianipal and King Nebuchadnezzar similar?
How did Cyrus treat the peoples he conquered?
He let them keep their own religions and speak their own languages but he still ruled with absolute power
What methods and tools did Darius use to hold together his empire?
that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle is fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil
What did Zoroaster teach?
that he doesnt want people to remember him for the bad things that happened, but for the good things that he tried to achieve
What do the words that appeared on Cyrus's tomb suggest about his character?
It allowed him to communicate quickly with the most distant parts of his empire
How did the Royal Road help Darius maintain control over his people?
After Darius' rule
What events led to to the development of Zoroastrianism?
Punishing the people who were disobedient
What did the Legalists see as the key to restoring order?
He had his armys attack Huange He and Vietnam and this doubled the size of China and weakened his opposition
What measures did Shi Huangdi take to crush political opposition at home?
To prevent criticism
Why did Shi Huangdi have his critics murdered?
brings together several peoples or states under the control of one ruler
Egypt's chief god
Assyrian king who burned Babylon as well as destroying 89 cities and 820 villages
Cyrus' son who conquered Egypt and this expanded the Persian Empire, scorned the Egyptian religion and ordered images of the gods to be burned
Ten Thousand Immortals
elite group of Persian soldiers that helped Darius seize his throne
term used to describe the modern day Zoroastrians
Chinese thinker (600 BC), only the natural order -relations among all living things- was important