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HGD Chapters 3 & 4

Piaget described a scheme as a psychological structure that
A. organizes experience.
Piaget used the term _____ to describe the process by which new experiences are easily incorporated into existing schemes.
C. Assimilation
According to Piaget, when a scheme is modified based on some exeriences, ___has occured.
C. Accomodation
Piaget saw equilibration as a balance between___
B. assimilation and accommodation
What is the correct sequence (first to last) of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
C. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Piaget argued that the first reactions by newborns were?
D. reflexive
Piagetians believe that an average child would first demonstrate the onset of intentional behavior when they are approximately how old?
C. 8 months old
Piaget used the term____to descrive the difficulty children often have in taking another person's perspective?
D. Egocentrism
Animism occurs when lifelike properties are attributed to?
C. animals
The defining characteristic of centration is _____thought?
B. narrowly focused
Which statement concerning Piaget's theory is true?
A. Piaget's theory has been the source of ideas for teachers and stimulated a great deal of research.
Which is not a Piagetian-based implication for teaching?
A. Teachers should provide anwers rather than letting students find answers on their own.
Which is a legitimate criticism of Piaget's theory?
C. not enough emphasis on sociocultural influences
Most preschoolers believe that
C. animate objects can heal themselves, but inanimate objects need to be repaired by humans.
An information-processing theorist would most likely conceptualize all built-in neural structures that assist the operations of the mind as
A. mental hardware
By definition, attention determines
which sensory information receives additional processing.
Which is the best example of habituation?
D. being bothered by the feel of a watch the first time it is on your wrist and then getting so used to it that you forget it's there.
Pablov's research involving a dog, salivation, and a bell is correctly associated with____theory.
C. classical conditioning
One -year-old Payton notices that when his dad, Archie, is watching football on television, he shouts at the screen. The next time a football game comes on, Payton shouts at the screen. Payton's behavior best exemplifies
D. imitation
A memory for some significant life event is called a ____memory
A. autobiographical
Which is the best example of a question designed to assess autobiographical memory?
B. Who taught you how to ride a bike?
What can be done to improve the credibility of the testimony of a child?
C. Use questions that test a number of different explanations concerning the event.
Which best exemplifies intersubjectivity?
C. the fact that all members of the soccer team know that the main point is to kick a ball into a goal.
How would a parent utilize guided participation to improve the math skills of their child?
D. have them play a series of math games with a more math-skilled sibling.
Scaffolding involves a teaching style in which assistance is always.
D. based on the level of the learner's needs.
As a typical 2-year old, Webster would have a vocabulary of
B. serveral hundred words.
When Helen Keller "discovered language" during her experience at the water pump, what she really acquired was
D. an awareness of the symbolic nature of language
When 2 yar old Paco is visiting his grandpa's farm, he sees his first chicken. His grandpa points to the funny red growth on the chicken's head and says, "It is called a comb." What will Paco's most likely reaction be the next time he sees a chicken?
B. He will refer to the bird as a "comb".
When a word is used too broadly (beyond its traditional categorical boundaries), ____is taking place.
D. overextention
The best predictor of a large vocabulary in a young child is
A. exposure to a high quality language environment.
Preschoolers who watch the television show Sesame Street have been shown to ___in kindergarten than children who have not watched the show.
C. have larger vocabularies
Which statement by a 17 month old best represents telegraphic speech?
B. "Go store"
Which is an example of a grammatical morpheme:
B. "-ing"
Which eveidence provides the strongest support for the "linguistic approach" to grammer acquisition?
C. the fact that the left hemisphere of the brain appears to be critical to linguistic development.
Which best describes proper linguistic turn-taking behavior?
A. attempt to alternate as speaker and listener.
A ____ is best described as any unlearned response triggered by a specific form of stimulation.
A. reflex
Winchester notices that every time he touches his bewborn son's cheek, the infant turns his head and apears to try and suck. This behavior exemplifies a ______ reflex.
C. rooting
Newborn crying typically
C. involves agitation and uncoordinated movements.
Pain cries can usually be differentiated from basic or mad cries by their
B. sudden onset
Which best describes a basic cry?
B. starts softly and becomes more intense
A friend hears that you are in a developmental psychology course and asks you how long their newborn daughter is suppose to sleep. Being a very bright student, you would give the correct answer of
C. 16-18 hours a day
Three week old Toni is in a sleep state characterized by arm movements and grimaces. This would suggest that Toni is in _____sleep.
A. rapid eye movement
Benji is a 4 year old who has a very difficult time falling asleep at night. According to your text, what would the best remedy be for this problem?
D. Develop a regular bedtime routine
Why are African American babies twice as likely to die from SIDS?
D. They were more likely to be put to bed on their stomachs.
Dr. Ramone is interested n studying how babies are different in terms of their behavior toward other people, how energetic they are, and how easily they are upset. It is most likely that Dr. Ramone is studying
B. temperament
While doing a study of temperament, Dr. Chernahoy is studying how long toddlers can play with some building toys without being distracted. What dimension of temperament is Dr. Chernahoy mosy likely assessing?
B. persistence
Siroun is informed that both of her one year old twin daughters are of "normal" weight. She is then informed that one weight 16 lbs and the other weighs 26 lbs. How is this possible?
C. The "normal" weight range of one year olds is very wide.
Which person is most likely experiencing the most rapid physical growth?
A. Jose, who is 18 months old
Which child is most likely to be the tallest?
C. Kara, who has a tall mother and a tall father.
Which technique is recommended for making finicky eaters more open-minded about the food they eat?
D. Allow children to pick among healthy foods.
Malnutrition seems to be most damaging if it oocurs during
D. infancy
Along with an improved diet, research indictes that____is also necessary to foster a malnourished child's development.
B. parent training
Lotte is recovering from a serious accident that damaged her frontal cortex. Which outcome is most likely?
C. Lott's personality will be different
Bridget is exellent at walking, running, climbing, and kicking balls. This would suggest that Bridget has good
B. motor skills
To locomote is to
D. move
What would be the best example of a fine motor skill?
B. feeding yourself with a spoon
Twelve month old Callum is barely able to walk a few steps before losing his balance and falling down. What is the term that best describes Callums' current ability to move around?
D. toddling
Tomomi has mastered balancing, stepping, and the perceptual skills necessary to negotiate her way around. Putting all these skills together to enable her to walk is a process called
A. integration
Approximately____of the children in the world are right handed.
A. 90%
A. cannot experience pain
B. Don't react to pain inducing stimuli
C. produce a distinct "pain cry."
D. are much more sensitive to pain than teenagers.
C. produce a distinct "pain cry".
Adults tend to be able to hear_____sounds better than infants.
C. quite
What evidence do reseachers have that young infants use sound to locate objects?
A. When they hear a sound, they attempt to look toward the source.
Traditional eye tests in which a person is shown a chart with a set of letters in a line that gets progressively smaller near the bottom of the chart are designed to directly assess
A. visual acuity
Who is most likely to be afriad of heights?
C.Patricia, who is 7 months old
The image of a person if identical on the retinas of a child, whereas the image of a dog is much different on the left retina than it is on the right. This means that the child will perceive.
A. the dog to be closer than the person
Which is considered a pictorial cue to depth?
B. texture gradient
Recent research indicates that newborns have a natural attraction for tracking
A. a moving face
The fact that an infant's perception of a stimulus is best if it stimulates more than one sense simultaneously is best described as
C. intersensory redundancy
Jeffrey is a 3 year old who is beginning to make connections between people's thoughts, intentions, and behaviors. According to Wellman
(2002), Jeffrey is developing
A. a theory of mind
A. are incapable of perceiving color.
B. can perceive few colors
C. can perceive color as well as adults
C. can perceive more colors that most adults
B. can perceive few colors
Which 1 year old would not be able to utilize retinal disparity to perceive depth?
B. Larry, who was born blind in 1 eye