PSYC410 Exam 2

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physiological level
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principle of common fatethings that are moving in the same direction appear to be grouped togetherprinciple of familiaritythings are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningfulprinciple of symmetrythings that are organized symmetrically can be grouped more easilyprinciple of closurethings defined by complete and simple contours are more easily perceivedprinciple of common regionelements that are within the same region of space appear to be grouped togetherprinciple of element of uniform connectednessthings that are physically connected are perceived as a unitprinciple of synchronyvisual events that occur at the same time are perceived as belonging togetherproperties of figure and ground- figure is more memorable and seen as being in front - ground extends behind the figure - contour separates the figure and ground appears to belong to the figure__________ areas are considered part of the backgroundlargerrole of contours- contour cannot belong to both figure and ground - contour belongs to figure therefore observer assumes that contour indicates a figuregibson and peterson (1994)-showed that meaningfulness of stimuli can affect figure-ground perception - participants were more likely to to identify figure when stimuli was uprightgestalt psychologists believe that _________ and __________ play a minor role in perceptual organization-experience -meaningpotter (1976)showed that people can perceive the gist of a scene and objects of a scene in just a 1/4 secondfei-fei et al (2007)used masking to show that the overall gist is perceived first followed by detailsheuristicsproduct of top-down processing, where our prior perceptual experience influences our interpretation of the environmentocclusion heuristicwhen a large object is partially covered by a smaller one, we see the larger one as continuing behind the occluderlight-from-above heuristicour perception is influenced by the assumption that light is coming from abovepalmer's top-down processing experiment- a kitchen scene briefly presented at first - participants were asked to identify one of the objects - 80% picked bread - because bread belongs in the kitchen - study showed that context influenced perception (top down)infant face perception- understand what an infant sees using preferential looking effect. - human faces are among the most important stimuli in an infant's environment.why do we pay attention to some parts of a scene but not others?- we decide some parts are more interesting - we have not shifted our gaze to other features - our attention is limitedselective attention- focusing on a particular stimulus and ignoring others - eye movement: scanning a scene to bring certain features into the foveaovert attentionshifting attention from one place to another by moving the eyescovert attention- shifting attention from one place to another while keeping the eyes stationary - continuing to focus on something specific, while paying attention to other things in the peripherysaccadesdisplacement of the gaze from one part of the scene to another (screening)fixationspauses between saccades (3 fixations per sec)infant study- infants reached to area of the toy they looked at most - threshold of 1 secwhat determines where we fixate?- characteristics of the scene - picture meaning and observer knowledge - precuing (faster reaction time when cue and target match)shinoda et al- observers' fixations measured while driving - more likely to detect stop signs when they were at all intersections - learned from experience that this where stop signs usually arefei fei et al (2002)some perception is possible even without focused attention (covert attention)inattentional blindnesswhen a stimulus that is not attended is not perceived even though a person is looking directly at itsimons and charbis (1999)failed to notice the gorilla or woman with umbrella because they were not told to be on the look for themchange blindnessfailing to notice changes in the environment because its so gradualattentional blink- the inability to see a 2nd target stimulus that closely follows a former one - most of our attention goes to 1st stimulus (500ms)role of attentionthe glue that binds together features and locationsillusory conjunction- incorrect combination of features - suggests that each feature exists independently in the perceptual processFIT preattentive stage- pop-out boundary (feature search): seeing letter O surrounded by letter V's - visual search (conjunction search): looking for letter R surrounded by letters P and Qhow does information from different areas of the brain combine?synchronous activity in different brain sites establishes connections between sites and allows for an integrated perception of eventsperception-action loopperception guides action; action changes perceptionJ. Gibson- most important 20th century American psychologist in the field of visual perception - pioneered the study of perception of a moving observerecological approach- study of perception as it occurs in natural environment (ecology) - connection between a person's perceptions and a person's movement through the environment - example: approaching a runwayecological opticsdescription of stimuli based on ambient optic array (ambient = environment)ambient optic ray- structured pattern of light reaching the person's eye - light radiating from focused point creates textured pattern - changed with motion (accretion and deletion)outflowing optic raycontinuous motion of observer creates an optic flowoptic flow- provides information about the relative distance of objects from the observer and of the relative direction of movement - focus of expansion: point in the distance where there is no flow - texture gradient: moves faster with steeper approach - self-produced locomotionvisual direction strategypeople keep their body pointed toward a target to maintain directionlee and aronson (1974)demonstrated the importance of vision in the control of balance using a "swinging room" (moving room)motion agnosia- loss of motion perception - motion perception is essential for dealing with everyday activitiesmiddle temporal cortex90% of neurons in MT respond to direction of movementmotion perception- creation of our nervous system - motor signal: observer's eyes move - image displacement signal: image moves across retina - corollary discharge: eye is moving to follow moving targetinduced movementwhen the motion of one object induces the perception of movement in anothermovement aftereffectlooking at continuous/constant motion in one direction for a while and looking away can create illusion of motion in the opposite directionboth _______ and ________ send information to a comparator- CDS - IDSmovement is perceived when ___________________________________________the comparator receives info from CDS or IDSwerner reichardt (1961)proposed a simple circuit where neural response is based on the timing of successive cell stimulationslarsen et al (2006)- control condition: each dot activated a separate area of visual cortex - apparent and real motion: activation of visual cortex from both sets of stimuli was similar - thus, the perception of motion in both cases is related to the same brain mechanismnewsome et al (1988, 1989)close link between stimulus properties, firing response, and perceptual processgraziano et al (1997)- in the premotor area (PM) there are neurons, called mirror neurons that respond when monkeys grasp an object, but also when monkeys watch someone grasp object - mirror neurons respond to only one type of action - helpful to relate to other people's actionskinetic depth effecta two-dimensional shadow (perceived as a flat shape) can be perceived as a 3D object when rotated (Wallach & O'Connell, 1953)intelligence of movement perception- object's meaning influences movement perception - knowledge of the human body influences movement perception - movement tends to occur on the shortest path