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7) A study by evaluating the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in reading compared two groups, one using the computers, the other not using them. The researchers first tested the students for "reading readiness" and insured that the average readiness scores of students in the two group was the same. The design used here was a two-level ___________ design.
11) McDonald and Flanagan (2004) evaluated the effects of traumatic brain injury. Which of the following is true about their study?d) the study used a subject variable with two levels12) Boothby et al.'s (2014) study of the shared experience of eating chocolate used a ________ design.d) single-factor, repeated-measures design13) In Boothby et al.'s (2014) study of the shared experience of eating chocolate,a) counterbalancing was needed14) Which of the following studies used a single-factor, repeated-measures design?c) Lee and Aronson's study comparing the effects of having a room move forward or backward15) Which of the following studies used a single-factor, independent groups design?b) the study by Mueller and Oppenheimer, which compared groups taking two types of class notes16) Which of the following studies used a single-factor, matched groups design?a) Kroeger et al.'s study, which evaluated the effects of a social skills program for autism17) Which of the following studies used a single-factor, nonequivalent groups design?d) the study by McDonald and Flanagan, which examined the effects of traumatic brain injury on understanding social exchanges18) In Stroop's most famous experiment, a comparison was made between naming color patches and naming colors when they were printed with color-mismatched names. What was true about his design?a) he used a reverse counterbalancing procedure19) In Stroop's most famous experiment, a comparison was made between naming color patches and naming colors when they were printed with color-mismatched names. Describe the design.a) single-factor, two levels, repeated measures20) A t test for dependent samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs?b) single-factor, matched groups design21) A t test for independent samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs?d) both alternatives a. and c.22) A t test for dependent samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs?d) both alternatives a. and c.23) A t test for independent samples is to a t test for dependent samples as ______ is to ______.c) nonequivalent groups design; a repeated-measures design24) Unlike two-level designs, multilevel designs canc) uncover nonlinear effects25) What was the reason for using more than two conditions in Bransford and Johnson (1972) 'laundry' study of the effects of context on memory?b) they hoped to rule out different interpretations about the effects of context26) Plötner et al. (2015) examined the effects of the presence of other children in children's helping their teacher. They used a multilevel _____ design.a) independent groups27) In Steele, Ball, and Runk's (1999) study of the "Mozart effect," the researchers used a multilevel, _______ design.b) repeated measures28) In Steele, Ball, and Runk's (1999) study of the so-called Mozart effect, which of the following was true?d) there was no Mozart effect, but a significant practice effect occurred29) In a study on the effects of caffeine on reaction time, one group of participants ingests two cups of coffee before being tested. A second group takes four cups, and a third group takes eight cups. Before the study, participants are asked about the average number of cups they drink per day and that information is used when assigning participants to groups. What is the design?a) multilevel, matched groups30) A researcher examines three groups of participants, extreme Type A, extreme Type B, and those in the middle. Each group is given a time estimation task (i.e., indicate when a minute has passed). What is the design?d) multilevel, nonequivalent groups31) For the Plötner et al. (2015) multilevel, independent groups study of children's helping behavior, the results were presenteda) in a bar graph32) In a single-factor study testing gender differences, with gender on the X-axis, which type of graph should be used?b) a bar graph33) Which of the following is true about how to construct a graph of an experiment's results?c) both alternatives a. and b.34) Which of the independent variables would lead you to use a bar rather than a line graph?a) political affiliation35) How should a multilevel, independent groups design be analyzed if there are three groups (A, B, C) in the study?d) complete a one-way ANOVA36) When analyzing a multilevel design, multiple t testsc) increase the probability of making a Type I error37) For the designs in this chapter, post hoc testing occurs whena) a one-way ANOVA yields a significant effect38) In research that evaluates some new form of psychotherapy, the usual comparison is betweenc) the new therapy and an already existing therapy39) The use of control groups has been criticized on ethical grounds becausec) control group participants could be missing an effective therapy40) A well-known example of a study that produced a nonlinear effect was the memory study by Ebbinghaus that produced his forgetting curve. Which of the following is true about his study?a) the independent variable was the amount of time between studying and recalling41) Which of the following is true about the Yerkes-Dodson arousal-performance study?c) it's an example of a study which should be illustrated with a line graph42) Of the studies described in the chapter, which most clearly illustrates the ability of a multilevel design to produce a nonlinear effect?d) the Yerkes Dodson arousal-performance study43) If counterbalancing is used in a single-factor study, you can be sure thata) repeated measures are involved44) If matching is used in a single-factor study, you can be sure thatd) the independent variable is tested between subjects45) If race/ethnicity is the independent variable in a single-factor design, it is likely thata) it is a multilevel design46) If a t test for dependent samples has been completed in a single factor study, you can be sure thatc) the independent variable only has two levels47) If a one-way ANOVA has been completed in a study with one independent variable, you can be sure thatc) post hoc testing will occur if the ANOVA is significant48) In research evaluating the effectiveness of a drug, participants in a placebo control groupb) are not given the drug, but think they are being given the drug49) Which of the following empirical questions is most likely to be answered with a study using a placebo control?d) Will alcohol slow down reaction time?50) Which of the following empirical questions is most likely to be answered with a study using a wait-list control group?a) Is psychoanalysis effective for agoraphobia?51) Which of the following studies would be most likely to use a wait-list control group?c) a study evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy for depression52) In the research example that evaluated the effects of subliminal self-help tapes on weight loss, which of the following was true?a) the study used both a placebo control and a waiting list control53) In a yoked control group,b) what happens to subjects depends on what happens to members of the experimental group54) In the study on the effectiveness of EMDR, how were participants in the yoked control group treated?c) the length of their "therapy" sessions matched those in the experimental group1)All factorial designsa) have at least two independent variables2)A 2x3 factorial design has sixb) different conditionsA 2x4 factorial design hasd) all of the above4) A 2x2x4 factorial designd) has sixteen different conditions5) A 3x3x3 factorial design has threec) independent variables1) A 3x3x3 factorial design hasd) all of the above7) In a factorial study, what is a main effect?b) it refers to any statistically significant difference between the levels of a single8) All of the following are true about factorial designs exceptc) they are best analyzed with a 1-factor ANOVA9) In a factorial study, a main effectb) occurs when differences are found for the different levels of an independent variable10) In a 2 (gender) x 2 (type of therapy) factorial design, men were helped by therapy A, but women were helped by therapy B. This describesc) an interaction between gender and therapy type11) In the study by Grant et al. (1998), subjects studied text materials either in a noisy or a quiet environment and also recalled the material either in a noisy or a quiet environment. What was true about this study?d) no significant main effects were found in this study, but there was an interactionc) there is an interaction but no main effectsIn a 2x2 design, the following results occur: 20 40 40 20e) there are two main effects and an interactionIn a 2x2 design, the following results occur: 20 40 40 80b) there is one main effect and no interactionIn a 2x2 design, the following results occur: 20 20 30 30d) there are two main effects but no interactionIn a 2x2 design, the following results occur: 20 30 30 40c) there is an interaction but no main effectsIn a 2x2 design, the following results occur: 20 30 30 20b) 2x3 mixed factorialIn a single experiment, amount of reward and type of reward are varied. Subjects are randomly assigned to one of three "amount of reward" groups. Each subject is tested once with one type of reward and once again with a second type of reward. What type of design is this?a) 30In the above study, suppose that 10 subjects are tested in condition represented by the upper left hand cell of the factorial matrix. How many subjects need to be recruited to complete the study?a) at least one between-subjects factor and at least one within-subjects factorA mixed factorial design hasa) it's a mixed factorial designIn a study of cognitive mapping, all subjects point as accurately as they can to six different geographical targets. Half the subjects are aided by being told where true North is. The remaining subjects are not given the North orientation. Which of the following is true about this design?a) 60Suppose you have a 2x2 design in which one of the variables is a between-subjects factor and one of the variables is a within-subjects factor. Further suppose that there will be 30 subjects in the upper left-hand cell of the 2x2 array. How many subjects are needed to complete the study?c) it includes both a subject variable and a manipulated variableWhich of the following is true about a P x E factorial design?b) a main effect of incentive (money)In a stylus maze study, some subjects are shocked for errors and others are not shocked. Also, some are told they'll earn $10 if they learn the maze in 5 trials and others are told they'll earn $100. The results are that whether or not shock was present had no effect on behavior, but those who could earn $100 learned faster than those earning just $10. This result is most clearly an example ofA researcher studied the influence of crowding (low, medium, and high crowding) on reading comprehension between two types of third graders. Half the children randomly assigned to each crowding condition were classified as "good" and half "poor" on an assessment of verbal fluency. In the study, each child read a 750-word passage and was tested on it later. 24) This is a _______ design.d) 2x3b) a subject variableThis study includesc) this is a P x E factorial designWhich of the following is true?c) 120Twenty poor comprehenders are tested in the low crowding condition. To keep the same N in all the cells, how many children will participate in the experiment?c) the study about beliefs about work as exercise in hotel workersWhich of the chapter's research examples used a mixed design?d) 3In a 3x3 factorial design, how many different F ratios will be calculated in the ANOVA?A researcher investigated the effect of a child's attractiveness and gender on judgments of personality and intelligence. Male teachers were shown photos of children to obtain their "first impressions" of children. Each teacher was shown four photos (the order was randomized for each teacher): an attractive boy, an unattractive boy, an attractive girl, and an unattractive girl. The teachers rated the apparent friendliness of the child and also estimated the child's intelligence. How would you describe the design of this study?c) it's a 2x2 repeated-measures factoriala) there are two different dependent variablesWhich of the following is true about the study?a) a manipulated variableThis study includes the gender of the children in the photos asa) 30With 30 teachers tested per cell of this design, how many teachers participated in the experiment?b) the study on simulated driving with cell phonesWhich of the chapter's research examples used a P x E mixed design?d) two main effectsOne of the chapter's research examples concerned the so-called closing time effect. The researchers found that the gender of the rater made a difference and the time of the ratings also made a difference. That is, the study produceda) a ceiling effect has occurredIn a memory study using a 2x2 factorial, one of the factors is the presentation rate of the words, the two levels being 2 and 4 seconds per item. The researcher finds that recall is 98% accurate at 2 seconds per item and 99% accurate at 4 seconds per item (not a statistically significant difference). The most reasonable conclusion is thatc) performance is so close to perfect for both groups that any true difference between them is obscuredA ceiling effect is said to occur whenb) in a release from PI study, a comparison is made between trials 1 and trial 4For which of the following within-subjects factors will counterbalancing not be involved?d) could be 20 or 30 (need more information)In a 2x3 mixed factorial design, with 10 people needed to fill the upper left hand cell of the matrix, how many people will be needed to complete the experiment?A researcher simultaneously investigated learning style and teaching style. Students were identified as either visual/concrete learners or verbal/abstract learners, on the basis of a learning style survey. For each type of student, half were taught a statistics lesson using a computer program that included a lot of graphics, while the other half used a computer program with fewer graphics and more verbal material. After working through the program, all students were given a test on statistics. 40) How would you describe the design of this study?d) it's a 2x2 P x E factoriald) counterbalancing is not required, but random assignment isWhich of the following is true about the study?b) a subject variableThis study includes learning style asa) 100With 25 students tested per cell of this design, how many students will be needed in all?d) a mixed factorial designIf a study is a P x E factorial design, it could also be aa) interactions between subject aptitudes and various types of treatmentATI designs look fora) P x E designAn ATI design would be considered an example of which of the following?c) this outcome describes a person by environment (P x E) interactionA researcher discovers that extroverts solve problems better than introverts when in a large room, but that introverts do better than extroverts in a small room. Which of the following is true?c) the study includes a subject variable and a manipulated variableA study by Shute compared students who scored high or low on a measure of their tendency to be "exploratory." Half of each group then learned about electricity through a "rule-application" strategy, while the other half learned through a "rule-induction" strategy. Which of the following was true?c) the design was a 2x4 repeated measures factorial designJenkins and Dallenbach did a famous study on the phenomenon of retroactive interference in the 1920s, in which they found that getting a good sleep before an exam might not be a bad idea. Which of the following was true about their study?d) neither alternative a. nor b. describes an interactionFor one of Fisher's agricultural studies, in which one of the IVs was the presence or absence of fertilizer and the other IV was strain of wheat (type A or B), which of the following outcomes illustrates an interaction?d) interactive effectsFisher thought that factorial designs were especially useful in agriculture, because the best crop yields might result from combinations of various factors. That is, Fisher saw that the advantage of factorials lies in their ability to uncovera) when the "E" factor is a repeated measureHow can a mixed factorial design also be a PxE factorial?
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