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all the water on the Earth


a measure of how salty water is


rain or melted snow that soaks into the ground


the layer of rock and soil that groundwater flows through

water table

the top level of groundwater in a aquifer


the area from which water drains into a river


a lake formed behind a dam

air pressure

the pressure of gas particles pushing another object


the changing of a gas into a liquid


the changing of a liquid into a gas


water leaving clouds as rain, snow, sleet, or hail


where ice turns into water vapor without first melting


ice crystals that form on surfaces


frozen rain drops

freezing rain

rain that freezes as soon as it hits a cold object; ice storm

How much of the Earth's surface does the hydrospere cover?

a little less than 3/4

How much of the hydrosphere is ocean water?

all but 3/100

Which ocean is the largest and deepest?

Pacific Ocean

What are the levels of the ocean's surface?

Sea Level

What carries salt (dissolved in rocks and soils) to the ocean?


____ areas have a higher salinity than ____ areas due to ________

warm, cold, evaporation

_____ water is heavier than ____ water with the same salinity.

cold, warm

What can cause current in the ocean?


Ocean temperatures near the poles are typically ____ than near the equator, but currents can change this.


List some ocean resources:

Most of our salt
Freshwater (very expensive)

What does fresh water contain some of?


What does most fresh water start as?

rain or snow

After most fresh water starts as rain or snow, then what does it become:

groundwater, rivers, lakes, or ice

Fresh water is not evenly _____ over the Earth


Fresh water is a precious _____ from God


Describe some characteristics of groundwater

keeps sinking until it reaches an aquifer
water table changes during the year
well water comes from aquifers

_____ areas of a watershed can affect distant places


How much of the Earth's fresh water is frozen?


Where are most of the ice sheets found?

Greenland and Antarctica

When do glaciers and ice sheets form?

when a year's snowfall is greater than the amount that melts

What are created when large pieces of ice break off of ice sheets and glaciers?


Is frozen ocean water salty?


What are the steps for treating water?

water is pumped to treatment plant
Chemicals are added to attract dirt
Water passes through a filter
Helpful chemicals are added
Water is pumped to a water tower
Water flows through a pump to the community

What is an invisible gas that exists all over the Earth?

water vapor

The ____ you are in the atmosphere, the ____ the air pressure is.

higher, lower

What are the water cycle steps?

precipitation, condensation, evaporation, run off

Water is not always going through the ______ (ex. living things use water)

water cycle

What is necessary from the sun for the water cycle?


How do clouds form?

Form when water vapor changes into tiny water droplets of ice crystals

What affects the formation of clouds?

temperature and air pressure

How does most rain in the US start?


Steps for hail

strong winds blow raindrops upward into the freezing air of a cloud
a small piece of ice is created
the ice continues to be blown upward until it is too heavy for the wind
Falls to the ground

There is more humidity in the air above a (warmer/colder) lake.


In order for a cloud to form, the humid air must be (cooled/heated).


As air rises, it (expands/compresses (is squeezed)).


Clouds form as air rises to areas of (more/less) air pressure.


sodium chloride

come table salt

Name the types of clouds

Cirrus, Thunderheads, Altocumulus, Stratus

Describe Cirrus clouds.

High altitude clouds form more than 6,000 m above the ground. Cirrus clouds are high altitude clouds that are thin, wispy, and white.

Describe Thunderhead clouds.

Clouds that grow vertically have rising air inside them. The bases of these clouds may be as low as 1,000m above the ground. The rising air may push the tops of these clouds higher than 12,000 m up. Vertical clouds are sometimes called thunderheads because they often cause thunderstorms.

Describe Altocumulus clouds.

The bases of mid-altitude clouds are between 2,000m and 7,000m above the ground. Altocumulus clouds are mid-altitude clouds that look like small, puffy balls. The bottoms of the clouds can look dark because sunlight may not reach them. The sides of the clouds are white because sunlight is reflecting off them.

Describe Stratus clouds.

Low altitude clouds are often seen less than 2,000m above the ground. Stratus clouds are low altitude clouds that cover the whole sky. They look dark because little sunlight gets through the layer of clouds.

Describe fog.

Fog is a cloud at ground level. It can form in several ways. One kind of fog can form on clear, cool nights with no wind. Air near the ground cools. If the air cools enough, water vapor condenses into tiny droplets and forms a cloud at or near the ground. As more droplets form and get larger, the fog appears thicker.

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