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Chapter 7 - Water on Earth - Vocabulary

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hydrosphere
all the water on the Earth
salinity
a measure of how salty water is
groundwater
rain or melted snow that soaks into the ground
aquifer
the layer of rock and soil that groundwater flows through
water table
the top level of groundwater in a aquifer
watershed
the area from which water drains into a river
reservoir
a lake formed behind a dam
air pressure
the pressure of gas particles pushing another object
condensation
the changing of a gas into a liquid
evaporation
the changing of a liquid into a gas
precipitation
water leaving clouds as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
sublimation
where ice turns into water vapor without first melting
frost
ice crystals that form on surfaces
sleet
frozen rain drops
freezing rain
rain that freezes as soon as it hits a cold object; ice storm
How much of the Earth's surface does the hydrospere cover?
a little less than 3/4
How much of the hydrosphere is ocean water?
all but 3/100
Which ocean is the largest and deepest?
Pacific Ocean
What are the levels of the ocean's surface?
Sea Level
What carries salt (dissolved in rocks and soils) to the ocean?
Rivers
____ areas have a higher salinity than ____ areas due to ________
warm, cold, evaporation
_____ water is heavier than ____ water with the same salinity.
cold, warm
What can cause current in the ocean?
salinity
Ocean temperatures near the poles are typically ____ than near the equator, but currents can change this.
colder
List some ocean resources:
Most of our salt
Magnesium
Freshwater (very expensive)
Food
What does fresh water contain some of?
salt
What does most fresh water start as?
rain or snow
After most fresh water starts as rain or snow, then what does it become:
groundwater, rivers, lakes, or ice
Fresh water is not evenly _____ over the Earth
distributed
Fresh water is a precious _____ from God
resource
Describe some characteristics of groundwater
keeps sinking until it reaches an aquifer
water table changes during the year
well water comes from aquifers
_____ areas of a watershed can affect distant places
contaminated
How much of the Earth's fresh water is frozen?
7/10
Where are most of the ice sheets found?
Greenland and Antarctica
When do glaciers and ice sheets form?
when a year's snowfall is greater than the amount that melts
What are created when large pieces of ice break off of ice sheets and glaciers?
Icebergs
Is frozen ocean water salty?
No
What are the steps for treating water?
water is pumped to treatment plant
Chemicals are added to attract dirt
Water passes through a filter
Helpful chemicals are added
Water is pumped to a water tower
Water flows through a pump to the community
What is an invisible gas that exists all over the Earth?
water vapor
The ____ you are in the atmosphere, the ____ the air pressure is.
higher, lower
What are the water cycle steps?
precipitation, condensation, evaporation, run off
Water is not always going through the ______ (ex. living things use water)
water cycle
What is necessary from the sun for the water cycle?
energy
How do clouds form?
Form when water vapor changes into tiny water droplets of ice crystals
What affects the formation of clouds?
temperature and air pressure
How does most rain in the US start?
snow
Steps for hail
strong winds blow raindrops upward into the freezing air of a cloud
a small piece of ice is created
the ice continues to be blown upward until it is too heavy for the wind
Falls to the ground
There is more humidity in the air above a (warmer/colder) lake.
warmer
In order for a cloud to form, the humid air must be (cooled/heated).
cooled
As air rises, it (expands/compresses (is squeezed)).
expands
Clouds form as air rises to areas of (more/less) air pressure.
less
sodium chloride
come table salt
Name the types of clouds
Cirrus, Thunderheads, Altocumulus, Stratus
Describe Cirrus clouds.
High altitude clouds form more than 6,000 m above the ground. Cirrus clouds are high altitude clouds that are thin, wispy, and white.
Describe Thunderhead clouds.
Clouds that grow vertically have rising air inside them. The bases of these clouds may be as low as 1,000m above the ground. The rising air may push the tops of these clouds higher than 12,000 m up. Vertical clouds are sometimes called thunderheads because they often cause thunderstorms.
Describe Altocumulus clouds.
The bases of mid-altitude clouds are between 2,000m and 7,000m above the ground. Altocumulus clouds are mid-altitude clouds that look like small, puffy balls. The bottoms of the clouds can look dark because sunlight may not reach them. The sides of the clouds are white because sunlight is reflecting off them.
Describe Stratus clouds.
Low altitude clouds are often seen less than 2,000m above the ground. Stratus clouds are low altitude clouds that cover the whole sky. They look dark because little sunlight gets through the layer of clouds.
Describe fog.
Fog is a cloud at ground level. It can form in several ways. One kind of fog can form on clear, cool nights with no wind. Air near the ground cools. If the air cools enough, water vapor condenses into tiny droplets and forms a cloud at or near the ground. As more droplets form and get larger, the fog appears thicker.