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the passing of information, the exchange of ideas, or the process of establishing a commonness or oneness of though between a sender and a receiver
the sender - the person or organization that has information to share with another person or a group of people
contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey - may be verbal or nonverbal, oral or written, or symbolic.
studies the nature of meaning and asks how our reality—words, gestures, myths, signs, symbols, products/services, theories - acquire meaning. - every marketing message has three components: Object, sign/symbol, and an interpreted message.
word of mouth communication
social channels of communication such as friends, neighbors, associates, co-workers, or family members
non personal channels
those that carry a message without interpersonal contact between sender and receiver
nonpersonal channels of communication that allow a message to be sent to many individuals at one time
field of experience
refers to the person who receives the message's experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and values he or she brings to the communication situation
levels of audience aggregation
1. individual and group audiences
2. niche markets
3. market segments
4. mass markets and audiences
developed to represent the stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personal - selling process - depicts the buyer as passing successfully through attention, interest, desire, and action
Hierarchy of Effects model
shows the process by which advertising works; assumes a consumer passes through as series of steps in sequential order from initial awareness of a product or service to actual purchase
innovation adoption model
evolved from work on the diffusion of innovations - represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service
information processing model
developed by William Mcguire - assumes the receiver in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver
dissonance attribution model
do → feel → learn occurs in situations where consumers must choose between two alternatives that are similar in quality but are complex and may have hidden or unknown attributes
the consumer seeks information that supports the choice made and avoids information that would raise doubts about the decision
low involvement hierarchy
the receiver is viewed as passing from cognition to behavior to attitude change. This learn → do → feel sequence is thought to characterize situations of low consumer involvement in the purchase process
→ the consumer engages in passive learning and random information catching rather than active information seeking - the advertiser must recognize that a passive, uninterested, consumer may focus more on non-message elements such as music, characters, symbols, and slogans or jingles than actual message content.
is for highly involving products and services where rational thinking and economic considerations prevail and the standard learning hierarchy is the appropriate response model.
for highly involving/feeling purchases - advertising for these types of products should stress psychological and emotional motives such as building self-esteem or enhancing one's ego or self-image
habit formation strategy
for low-involvement/thinking products with such routinized behavior patterns that learning occurs most often after a trial purchase
self satisfaction strategy
for low-involvement/feeling products were appeals to sensory pleasures and social motives are important
the thoughts that occur to consumers while reading, viewing, and or/hearing a communication
negative thoughts about the spokesperson or organization making the claims - lead to a reduction in message acceptance
ad execution related thoughts
reactions to ad execution factors such as the creativity of the ad, the quality of the visual effects, colors, and voice tones
attitude toward the ad
represents the receiver's feelings of favorability or unfavorability towards the ad
elaboration likelihood model
differences in the ways consumers process and respond to persuasive messages - Richard Petty and John Cacioppo - developed to explain the process by which persuasive communications (ads) lead to persuasion by influencing attitudes
to process the message depends on such factors as involvement, personal relevance, and individuals needs and arousal levels
depends on the individuals knowledge, intellectual capacity, and opportunity to process the message
central route to persuasion
the receiver is viewed as a very active, involved participant in the communication process whose ability and motivation to attend, comprehend, and evaluate messages are high
peripheral route to persuasion
the receiver is viewed as lacking the motivation or ability to process information and it not likely to engage in detailed cognitive processing
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