Which statement about natural selection is most correct?
D. Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene pool, than do poorly adapted individuals
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V—Z, has been least successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant?
Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. Which information would best help distinguish between an explanation based on homology versus one based on convergent evolution?
B. The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical.
If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
b. they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree?
e. DNA sequence evidence fully disagreed with morphological evidence.
The upper forelimbs of humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales have very different shapes and proportions. However, genetic data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data?
Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.
In Darwins thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the
more recently they shared a common ancestor
Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuviers attempt to explain the existence of
b. the fossil record.
A biologist studied a population of squirrels for 15 years. During that time, the population was never fewer than 30 squirrels and never more than 45. Her data showed that over half of the squirrels born did not survive to reproduce, because of competition for food and predation. In a single generation, 90% of the squirrels that were born lived to reproduce, and the population increased to 80. Which inference(s) about this population might be true?
E. A, B, and C
DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" that would permanently eradicate insect pests. Today, instead, DDT is largely useless against many insects. Which of these would have been required for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run?
None of the individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DDT
Darwins mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earths ancient age?
Natural selection is based on all of the following except
E. individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve.
Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)?
Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier
If 3TC resistance is costly for HIV, then which plot (I—IV) best represents the response of a strain of 3TC-resistant HIV over time, if 3TC administration begins at the time indicated by the arrow?
The theory of evolution is most accurately described as
an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.
The trees horizontal axis is a timeline that extends from 100,000 years ago to the present; the vertical axis represents nothing in particular. The labeled branch points on the tree (V—Z) represent various common ancestors. Lets say that only since 50,000 years ago has there been enough variation between the lineages depicted here to separate them into distinct species, and only the tips of the lineages on this tree represent distinct species.
How many separate species, both extant and extinct, are depicted in this tree?
Which of these naturalists synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?