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Semantics is what a message means; syntax is how a message is organized.
Distinguish between syntax and semantics.
The simple message ordering: client sends request, and then server sends response.
Describe the simple message ordering in HTTP.
Sequence number, acknowledgement number, source and destination port numbers
What are the major header fields for a TCP segment?
As a message is encapsulated from the application layer to the transport layer, in which field in the transport layer is the message from the application layer placed?
Rules of operation that govern the exchange of messages between two hardware or software processes.
You need to represent 1,026 different city names. How many bits will this take if you give each city a different binary number?
What kind of message does the destination host send if it does not receive a segment during a TCP connection?
Host A sends SYN; Host B sends SYN/ACK; Host A sends ACK
Describe the three-way handshake in TCP connection openings.
What kind of message does the destination host send if it does it receive a segment that has an error during a TCP connection?
If it does not receive and ACK message from the destination host
Under what conditions will a source host TCP process retransmit a segment?
The receiver would discard the frame.
If the receiver detects an error on the basis of the value in the Frame Check Sequence field, what does it do?
It would discard one of the duplicated segments
How do you think TCP would handle the problem if an acknowledgement were lost, so that the sender retransmitted the unacknowledged TCP segment, therefore causing the receiving transport process to receive the same segment twice?
The destination port field of the TCP message
When the HTTP program sends an HTTP response message to a client PC, in what field of what message will it place the value 80?
FTP-file transfer protocol
SMTP-simple message transfer protocol
http-hypertext transfer protocol
List 5 application layer protocols by acronym, expanded name, and function.
The SPOT satellite tracking device shown in class assumes an underlying reliable data communications system.
Timing (what happens when; ex. Flow control)
Semantics (what means what; ex. flags)
Syntax (what goes where; ex. Ethernet frame bits 0-16 are part of the preamble)
What three main things must communications protocols govern? Describe what each means, and give an example.
It does this so that it can apply sequence numbers to segements which are later used for error correction.
Why does TCP use a three-step handshaking protocol (also called a three-way opening) to establish connections?
The trailer is used for error detection. If there is an error, the packet is discarded.
Why does only the data link layer typically have a trailer in its protocol data unit?
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