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Terms in this set (51)
the exchange of information between a sender and receiver including the inference of meaning between the parties

• The process by which information is transmitted and understood between people
• Circular and dynamic process of interpreting and making sense of info
• Process is heavily influenced by perceptions
•Every managerial function and activity involves some form of direct or indirect communication

•Effective communication helps individuals, groups, and organizations achieve their goals

•Effective communication leads to better decision making, increased employee well-being, coordinating of work activities
Improving Communication Across Generations• Avoid generalizing trends, preferences, perceptions • Clarify communication expectations and norms • Give credit for ideas, not gender • Use a variety of communication tools • Be aware of implicit biasCosts of Social MediaLost productivity is a primary concern for employers adopting of social media (cyberloafing) How do employees waste time on social media? • 50% talking on the phone or texting • 39% surfing the Internet • 38% on social media • 23% sending personal emailBlocking Access to Social Media•Blocking access will not save time/productivity if employees just use their personal devices to access the sites •If employees are expected to respond to work e-mail during their personal time, then they should be allowed to attend to personal interests during work hoursBoosting Communication EffectivenessStep 1: Frame your story • Include only the most relevant details; bring them to life with examples • End with a solution or conclude with a question to spur audience engagement Step 2: Plan your delivery and rehearse • Reading from a script is less effective • Develop and practice transitions Step 3: Develop your stage presence • Beware of how much you move and make eye contact • Realize that people expect you to be nervous Step 4: Plan your multimedia • Keep your technology simple and don't let it distract the audience Step 5: Put it together • Prepare in advance and practice in front of others • Be yourselfThree options for crucial conversations1. Avoid them 2. Face them and handle them poorly 3. Face them and handle them wellHow to Be Effective-Share your facts- start with the least controversial, most persuasive elements -Tell your story- describe what has happened, how you got there, and how you would like to see it changed -Ask for other's facts and stories- approach conversations as a two-way exchange -Talk tentatively- you are telling a story, not stating facts -Encourage testing/sharing- encourage others to test/share their ideas, thoughts, and feelingsConflict-Energy created by a perceived gap exists between what is desired and what is experienced -Noncooperation, bullying, insults, anger, discrimination, threats, sabotage, physical violenceConflict Escalation-Conflicting parties take more extreme positions, become less flexible and turn to destructive and negative attacks Warning Signs of Conflict Escalation: • Tactics change • Number of issues and parties grows • Issues move from specific to general • Goals changeAvoidance of Conflict• We are social/dislike conflict • It is stressful • Agreeableness is rewarded • Fear backlash • Fear of rejection or harm • Fear loss of relationships • Fear of saying the wrong thing • Fear the consequences of successPersonality conflictis interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike or disagreementIntergroup conflictoccurs among work groups, teams, departments, and organizations The means by which team members work through disagreements is as important as the cause of the conflict Top priority for managers is identifying and eliminating specific negative interactionsHandling Intergroup ConflictContact hypothesis -suggests more frequent interaction between members of different groups reduces the chance intergroup conflict • Increasing interaction frequency may have limited impact • Quality of contact matters morePsychologically safe climate (PSC)shared belief that it is safe to engage in risky behaviors without negative consequences • Employees more likely to speak up and share ideas • Less likely to take disagreements personallyOther ways manager can reduce intergroup conflict• Engage in team building • Encourage/facilitate friendships via social events • Avoid or neutralize negative gossip • Be a role modelWork-Life Conflict (WLC)Occurs when the expectations and demands from work and life are mutually incompatible; can go both ways (work to life, life to work)Three types of WLC:• Time-based- when time devoted to one role makes it difficult to participate in another role • Strain-based- when strain generated in one role intrudes into and impedes successful participation in another role • Behavior-based- when specific behaviors mandated by one role are incompatible with the behavioral norms of another roleIncivilityAny form of socially harmful behavior • Aggression, social undermining, harassment, bullying, abusive supervision•Incivility in the workplace • Violates norms of respect • Can happen without notice• ContagiousCommon Conflict Handling StylesNegotiationGive-and-take decision-making process involving parties with different preferencesDistributive negotiationconcerned with a single issue where one person gains at the expense of another; "fixed pie"• -Win-Lose approachIntegrative negotiationconcerned with multiple interests which can be integrated into an agreement that is satisfactory to both parties • Collaborative and problem-solving approachSuccess in NegotiationsThe success of negotiations is influenced by the quality of information exchanged • Telling lies, hiding key facts, and engaging in other unethical tactics erodes trust and goodwill; makes negotiating more difficultDecision-MakingA conscious process for identifying and choosing among alternative solutions that lead to a desired state of affairsThe way we make decisions is shaped by the way we think; using one of two systems of thinking-System 1 is quick and automatic, with little or no effort or with no sense of voluntary control (nonrational decision making) • Forms first impressions and judgements System 2 utilizes analytical and conscious thought; is slow, logical, and requires cognitive effort (rational decision making) • More methodological approachRational Decision MakingProcess of identifying, selecting, and applying the best alternative • Best decisions use pure logic and all available information • "How managers should make decisions"Nonrational Decision-Making-Don't possess complete information; optimal decision not feasible• "How managers actually make decisions" •Guided by bounded rationality which suggests our ability to make decisions is restricted or bounded by a series of constraints • We seek manageable amounts of information • Results in satisficing- choosing a solution that is "good enough"Model Of IntuitionAbility to know when a problem/opportunity exists and to select the best course of action without conscious reasoning • Understanding something without actual evidenceTwo types of intuition•Holistic hunch- judgment based on a subconscious integration of information stored in memory •Automated experience- a choice based on a familiar situation and a subconscious application of learned information related to itWhy Do We Make Bad Decisions?-Incomplete information -Not enough timeToo few alternatives -Judgmental Heuristics- cognitive shortcuts/biases that help simplify the process of making decisionsHeuristics, or Biases in Decision-making1. Confirmation bias- selectively gathering information 2. Overconfidence bias- overestimating our skills relative to others 3. Availability bias- base decisions on information readily available from memory (not the same as recency error/bias) 4. Representativeness bias- assess the likelihood of an event occurring based on one's impressions about similar occurrences 5. Anchoring bias- decision makers are influenced by the first information received about a decision, even if it is irrelevant 6. Hindsight bias- knowledge of an outcome influences our belief we could have predicted the outcome earlier (Overestimation bias) 7. Framing bias- the manner in which a question is posed/framed influences how we interpret solutions 8. Escalation of commitment bias- tendency to stick to an ineffective course of action even in the face increasingly negative outcomesfour decision making stylesPower-The discretion and the means to enforce your will over others (from text) -The capacity to influence others (more succinct definition) Power refers to the potential to influence, not the act of influencing Based on the target's perception that power holder controls valuable resources Depends on a minimum level of trustThree sources of position power- granted formally by the organization1. Legitimate power- agreement among organizational members that people in certain roles can "request" a set of behaviors from others Employees obey "requests" based on that agreement, not the manager's ability to reward 2. Reward power- the ability to control the allocation of rewards Managers control promotions, raises; employees control managerial ratings 3. Coercive power- ability to make threats and apply punishments Managers can give warnings or recommend remediation (or firing)Sources of Personal Power- power comes from the holder's own characteristics; are not dependent on one's position or job title4. Expert power- ability to influence others by virtue of possessing knowledge or skills valued by others Influential because we respond to expert power just as we respond to authority—we often follow expertise blindly 5. Referent power- when others like, respect, and/or identify with someone Generally arises from interpersonal skills Often associated with charisma5 basis of powerEmpowerment-efforts to enhance employee performance, well-being, and positive attitudes Giving employees greater influence and decision-making authority, changing policies and procedures, job responsibilities Empowerment is not an either or thing; some level of empowerment existsTwo types of empowerment:-Structural: focused on transferring authority and responsibility from managers to employees Related to self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation -Psychological: occurs when employees feel a sense of meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact at work Draws on job design and job characteristicsInfluenceAny behavior that is intended to alter someone's attitudes or behavior -Hard influence tactics- force behavior change through position power (legitimate, reward, and coercion) -Soft influence tactics- use personal sources of power (referent and expert); appeal to the target's attitudes and needsSix principles of persuasion:Liking- people tend to like those who like them Reciprocity- belief that good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind Social proof- people tend to follow the lead of those most like themselves Consistency- people tend to do what they are personally committed to do Authority- people tend to defer to and respect credible experts Scarcity- people want resources that have limited availabilityImpression ManagementAny attempt to control or manipulate the images related to a person, organization, or idea using speech, behavior, appearance -We care what others think (most of the time) and we may be compelled to manage other's perceptions about us -Used to create, promote, protect, or repair one's imageUpward Impression ManagementJob-focused- presenting your job performance through a favorable lens (e.g., arriving at work early or work late) Supervisor-focused- behaviors directed towards a supervisor (e.g., flattery, favors) Self-focused- behaviors intended to create & maintain an image of a responsible, polite person (e.g., working harder when results will be seen, acting like a "model" employee)