Home
Subjects
Create
Search
Log in
Sign up
Upgrade to remove ads
Only $2.99/month
Home
Math
Statistics
Statistics Exam 1
STUDY
Flashcards
Learn
Write
Spell
Test
PLAY
Match
Gravity
Dr. Battnich's Stats class 3331 The College of St. Scholastica Chapters 1-4
Terms in this set (46)
variables
- a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals
continuous variables
- infinite number of possible values that can fall between two observed values
- weight, height, age, GPA
discrete variables
- separate, individual categories
- number of rooms/siblings, gender, occupation, major, whole numbers, handedness
ratio scale
- an interval scale that has an absolute zero
- ex. weight
interval scale
- ordered categories with same size interval
- arbitrary zero point
- ex. temperature
nominal scale
- "category names"
- you can tell if two things are different, but you cannot tell the size or direction of the difference
- ex. hair color
ordinal scale
- categories that are in an ordered sequence that can be ranked in terms of direction
- doesn't tell us magnitude
- ex. drink sizes
population
- set of individuals who are of interest for the study
sample
- individuals selected from the population for the study
parameter
- a numerical value that describes a population
- ex. average score for the entire population
statistic
- a numerical value that describes a sample
- ex. average score for a sample
descriptive statistics
- organizing and summarizing to communicate information
- condenses large amounts of information into a few simple figurines (tables/graphs)
- mean, median, mode, standard deviation, range are descriptive statistics
inferential statistics
- statistical procedures used to study samples and make generalizations about populations
sampling error
- discrepancy between a sample and the population
histograms
- continuous variables that use absolute frequencies
polygons
- continuous variables that use absolute frequencies
- use dots instead of bars
bar graphs
- show discrete variables on nominal or ordinal scales
- show absolute and relative frequencies
smooth curves
- continuous variables showing relative frequencies in populations
correlation
- measure two variables in every individual to see if there is a relationship between them
- does not imply causation
experiment
- compare two or more groups (control and experimental)
- manipulate the important variable (IV)
- measure the second variable (DV)
- hold the other variables constant with random assignment
- can talk about cause and effect relationships
quasi-experimental
- like an experiment, except we can't manipulate our IV
- have to use pre-existing groups (depressed and non-depressed, etc)
independent variable
- the variable we manipulate
- this variable we believe is causing the relationship
dependent variable
- the variable we believe is caused by the independent variable
- the variable we measure
construct
- attribute that cannot be directly observed but can be measured when operationally defined (IQ, self esteem, comprehension, etc)
operational definition
- specifies the precise way in which to conceptualize and measure the construct of interest
random assignment
- randomly assign participants to each condition
variability
- quantitative measures describing the spread of scores in a distribution
- range and standard deviation
symmetrical distributions
- mean, median, and mode will all be the same
why do deviation scores always add up to zero?
- the mean is a balance point
- 50% of all score will be above the mean
- 50% of all scores will be below the mean
standard deviation
- on average, how far a typical score is away from the mean
what is the term for the standard deviation for samples?
- estimated population standard deviation
degrees of freedom
- the number of scores in a sample that are independent and free to vary (n-1)
mean
- arithmetic average
median
- middle score
- 50% of all scores will be equal to and above
- 50% of all scores will be equal to and below
mode
- number that occurs the most often
- have to use it for nominal data
- can have more than one
range
- highest to lowest score
- an unreliable measure of variability because it only takes into account extreme scores
the mean and adding/subtracting a constant
- shifts it by the same degree
- add two, the mean will raise by two points, etc.
the standard deviation and adding/subtracting a constant
- no effect
s
- standard deviation of a sample
s²
- variance of a sample
σ
- standard deviation of a population
σ²
- variance of a population
n
- number of participants in a condition
N
- number of participants in a study
M
- mean of a sample
μ
- mean of a population
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Statistics Exam 2
22 terms
Statistics Exam 3
19 terms
Statistics Exam 4
17 terms
ANOVA
23 terms
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
exam 1 notes
57 terms
PSYC 364 Exam 1
95 terms
Statstics
55 terms
Psych 107 (Stats) Vocab
94 terms
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Driving and Driver Rehab PDF
55 terms
Splinting
19 terms
OT Groups
17 terms
If you're an OT, you should know...
35 terms