Terms in this set (279)
Bacteria, which cause 2 distinct illnesses: a diarrheal type of illness and a vomiting (emetic) type of illness. A wide variety of food including cooked corn, potatoes, and other vegetables as well as meat products have been associated with diarrheal-type food poisoning. The vomiting-type outbreaks have generally been associated with cooked rice dishes, such as fried rice and rice pudding.
Bacteria reproduce (or grow) by splitting into 2. When conditions are favorable, bacteria can grow and multiply very rapidly, doubling the population as often as every 20 minutes, in some cases. Three phases of bacterial growth are the lag phase (slow growth), log phase (rapid growth), stationary phase (equilibrium between growth and die-off), and death phase (decrease in population).
A common type of thermometer that measures temperature through a metal probe with a sensor toward the end. It is easy to recalibrate. These thermometers have scales measuring temperatures from 0° to 220°F (-18° to 104°C); accurate to within +/-2°F (+/-1°C), and are useful for measuring the temperature of many food items.
Includes bacteria and the toxins they produce—viruses, parasites, and fish and plant toxins. Biological contamination from microorganisms or microbial contamination is the leading cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. SeeContaminants, contamination; Hazards, biological. Biological toxins: Type of biological contamination that causes foodborne illness. Many biological poisons, or toxins, occur naturally (in some fish, plants, mushrooms); others are caused by the diets of certain animals. Heating or freezing cannot destroy most toxins.
Campylobacter jejuniBacteria that causes the illness Campylobacteriosis. It is commonly associated with poultry. It is sometimes known to contaminate water. To reduce the risk of illness from this bacteria, it is important to cook food to minimum cooking temperatures, especially poultry, and prevent cross-contamination.Cantilever-mountedAlso called wall-mounted. Equipment attached to the wall with a bracket to allow for easier cleaning behind and underneath it.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Agencies of the U.S. Public Health Service that investigate outbreaks of foodborne illness, study the causes and control of disease, and publish statistical data.Ciguatera Fish PoisoningFoodborne illness that occurs when a person eats fish that has consumed the ciguatoxin. This toxin accumulates in the fish when they consume smaller fish that have eaten toxic algae. Ciguatoxin is commonly associated with predatory reef fish from the Pacific Ocean, western Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean sea including barracuda, grouper, jacks, and snapper.CiguatoxinA toxin found in certain marine algae, commonly associated with predatory reef fish. The toxin accumulates in these fish when they consume smaller fish that have eaten the toxic algae. Ciguatera fish poisoning is the illness that results when these fish are eaten. See Ciguatera fish poisoning.Cleaned in Place (CIP)Clearning by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and SANITIZING solution onto or over EQUIPMENT surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and SANITIZE a frozen dessert machine. (2) "CIP" does not include the cleaning of EQUIPMENT such as band saws, slicers, or mixers that are subjected to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system.Clostridium PerfringensA spore-forming bacteria that is widely distributed in the environment and frequently occurs in the intestines of humans and many domestic and feral animals. Spores of the organism persist in soil, sediments, and areas subject to human- or animal-fecal pollution. In most instances, the actual cause of illness by Clostridium perfringens is temperature abuse of prepared food. Small numbers of the organisms are often present after cooking and multiply to foodborne-illness levels during improper cooling and storage of prepared food. Meat, meat products, and gravy are the types of food most frequently implicated.Cold PaddleUtensils that can be filled with water and frozen. Stirring food products with a cold paddle chills food very quickly. See Ice paddle.Commingle(1) To combine SHELLSTOCK harvested on different days or from different growing areas as identified on the tag or label, or (2) To combine SHUCKED SHELLFISH from containers with different container codes or different shucking dates.CovingCurved, sealed edge between the floor and wall that makes cleaning easier and eliminates hiding places for insects.substances normally found in restaurant and foodservice establishments, including toxic metals, pesticides, cleaning products, sanitizers, and lubricants.Disclosuremeans a written statement that clearly identifies the animal-derived FOODS which are, or can be ordered, raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens, or items that contain an ingredient that is raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens.Grade A standardsmeans the requirements of the United States Public Health Service/FDAGrade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinancewith which certain fluid and dry milk and milk products comply.Hermetically sealed containera container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and, in the case of low acid canned FOODS, to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processingMajor Food Allergen(1) "Major food allergen" means: (a) Milk, EGG, FISH (such as bass, flounder, cod, and including crustacean shellfish such as crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (such as almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans; or (b) A FOOD ingredient that contains protein derived from a FOOD (2) "Major food allergen" does not include: (a) Any highly refined oil derived from a FOOD specified in Subparagraph (1)(a) of this definition and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil; or (b) Any ingredient that is exempt under the petition or notification process specified in the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-282).Refusemeans solid waste not carried by water through the SEWAGE system.Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)Any E.coli capable of producing Shiga toxins (also called verocytotoxins). STEC infections can be asymptomatic or may result in a spectrum of illness ranging from mild non-bloody diarrhea, to hemorrhagic colitis (i.e., bloody diarrhea), to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS - a type of kidney failure). Examples of serotypes of STEC include: E. coli O157:H7; E. coli O157:NM; E. coli O26:H11; E. coli O145:NM; E. coli O103:H2; and E. coli O111:NM. STEC are sometimes referred to as VTEC (verocytotoxigenic E. coli) or as EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli). EHEC are a subset of STEC which can cause hemorrhagic colitis or HUS. "Shucked shellfish" means MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH that have one or both shells removed. "Single-service articles" means TABLEWARE, carry-out UTENSILS, and other items such as bags, containers, placemats, stirrers, straws, toothpicks, and wrappers that are designed and constructed for one time, one PERSON use after which they are intended for discard.SlackingThe process of moderating the temperature of a FOOD such as allowing a FOOD to gradually increase from a temperature of -23o C (-1°0 F) to -4°C (25°F) in preparation for deep-fat frying or to facilitate even heat penetration during the cooking of previously block-frozen FOOD such as shrimp.VarianceA written document issued by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY that authorizes a modification or waiver of one or more requirements of this Code if, in the opinion of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY, a health HAZARD or nuisance will not result from the modification or waiver.WarewashingThe cleaning and SANITIZING of UTENSILS and FOOD-CONTACT SURFACES of EQUIPMENT.Whole-muscle, Intact Beefmeans whole muscle beef that is not injected, mechanically tenderized, reconstructed, or scored and marinated, from which beef steaks may be cut.One of the FDA-recommended food safety responsibilities of a manager is:Supervising food handlers to ensure hot and cold food holding temperatures are regularly monitoredHow can a food handler reduce or eliminate the risk of food contamination?Washing their hands after using the restroomHow long should hands and arms be scrubbed during handwashing?10-15 secondsReady-to-eat food should NEVER be handled with bare hands in what situation?When food is being served to a high-risk population, like children or the elderlyWhen should a delivery be inspected?Immediately upon receiving the deliveryWhy is it advisable to only remove the amount of food you can prep in a short period of time from the cooler?To prevent time-temp abuseIt is discovered that a steam table holding hot soup has broken down, and the soup may have been unheated for as long as 3 hours. What should be done with the soup?Discard the soup, heat a new batch to 135˚F and place it in a working steam tablePerforming procedural checks every shift to identify problems, and comparing and analyzing temperature logs each week are examples of which principle in the HAACP system?Principle 6 - Verifying that the system worksWhat can hand sinks be used for?Handwashing onlyWhen heat sanitizing items, they must be submerged in water that is at least 171˚F for at least ______:30 secondsName the four (4) types of pathogens that can contaminate food and cause foodborne-illness:Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites, and FungiYou see an employee preparing food directly after cleaning the grease trap. What corrective action should be taken?Dispose of any potentially contaminated food, and instruct the employee on proper handwashing procedure immediatelyWhy should food handlers not wear false eyelashes?They can become a physical contaminantCold TCS food should be received at or under ________.41˚FA ready-to-eat pasta salad is taken out of the cooler at 2:00 pm and placed on an outdoor buffet. At what time should the salad be discarded?8:00 pmWhat would be classified as an imminent health hazard?A broken water main in the facilityCooler and freezer thermometers should be accurate to within:± 3˚F (or 1.5˚C)A running faucet below the rim of a sink is an example of:Cross-connectionWhat is the sanitizer concentration range for chlorine sanitizers?50-99 ppmThe final sanitizing rinse of a high-temperature dishwasher must be at least ______:180˚FA chef wants to put a seared tuna dish on the menu. How can she best ensure a safe product for service?Order the tuna from an approved and reputable supplierWhich of the following is an example of a physical contaminate?A piece of wood found in a customer's saladWhat is an accepted covering for an infected cut on the hand?A plastic Band-Aid under a single-use gloveWhere should employee coats and backpacks be stored?In a closet or room away from food prep areasA package of frozen shrimp arrives with large ice crystals present on the outside of the food, and water damage on the box. What is this indicative of?The product has undergone thawing and re-freezingWhat would be the minimum internal cooking temperature of a chopped salmon burger?155˚FWhich food item does NOT need to be behind a sneeze guard or in a case in a self-service area?Whole, unpeeled bananasA customer calls to report that they contacted a foodborne-illness after they ate at your establishment. What information should you get from the customer?General contact information and a description of what food and drink the customer consumedWhere should recycling containers be located?Outside, next to the trash cansIdentify the correct set-up of a three-compartment sink:Detergent and water (at least 110˚F), clean water, sanitizer and waterWhere should chemicals be stored in a food service operation?In a closet or shelving area away from food preparation areasWhat is an acceptable container for an employee beverage?A disposable coffee cup with a sip-top lidAn employee is coughing and complaining of experiencing vomiting and diarrhea. How should the situation be handled?Send the employee home immediately, and require a note from their doctor before they return to workA case of #10 cans of tomato sauce on a delivery has 4 of 6 cans severely dented, but not punctured or leaking. What should be done with the items?Return the damaged cans to the delivery driver and request a credit slip for the unusable itemsWhich food item can be re-served?Sealed packets of oyster crackersWhich action should be taken to prepare for a flood?Keep an emergency supply of bottled water on handTo keep pests away from food and supplies, how many inches off the floor must items be stored?6 inchesYou have discovered signs of a cockroach infestation in your dry storage area. What should your first step be to address the problem?Call a licensed Pest Control Operator to inspect the building and develop an approachWhat is the sanitizer concentration range for iodine sanitizers?12.5-25 ppmWhat is the best way to ensure that all cleaning tasks are being identified and preformed regularly?Create a master cleaning schedule, and follow itAfter taking a bite of their meal, a customer is developing hives, swollen lips, and shortness of breath. These are signs of what type of illness?An allergic reactionWhat is the best way to ensure proper personal hygiene in employees?Set up a staff dress code, put it in writing, and enforce itWhat temperature range is referred to as "the danger zone"?41˚F - 135˚FHow long should documentation for both frozen and farm-raised fish be kept?90 days from the sale of the fishHow many days can properly prepared and stored TCS food be kept?7How quickly must food be cooled from 135˚F to 70˚F?2 hoursWhen catering, the service site should have:A safe water source for cooking and handwashingWhich mobile kitchen unit is exempt from the full set of rules applied to permanent food-service operations?An ice cream truck serving frozen packaged novelties and candyA PCO has completed a pesticides treatment on the facility. What documentation do you need from them regarding the chemicals used?An SDS (safety data sheet)A manager notices that several nightly cleaning tasks are not being completed by the night crew. How should the issue be addressed?Assess the number of cleaning duties assigned to the shift to be sure they can be completed in the required time frameHazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)A specific approach for identifying food safety hazards that involves finding potential food safety issues in your program and implementing preventative measures.Safety Data Sheet (SDS)Documents produced by a chemical manufacturer that contain information about the chemical such as physical, health, and environmental health hazards; protective measures; and safety precautions for handling, storing, and transporting the chemical.Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)Written best practices and procedures for producing safe food that address basic cleaning and sanitation programs and each step in the foodservice process (purchasing, receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, serving and holding, cooling, reheating, and transporting).Time/Temperature Control for Safety Foods (TCS)Foods that require time and/or temperature control because they are capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of pathogens.What are the Big 6 foodborne pathogens?Norovirus Salmonella Salmonella Typhi E.coli Shigella HepatitisAWhat symptoms should you report to your supervisor?Diarrhea• Vomiting• Sore throat with fever• Infected wound or boil on hands or arms• Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)• Diagnosis of or exposure to a foodborne illnessexcluded from workExclusion means a school nutrition employee is not permitted to work in or enter a food preparation site. This requirement applies to areas where food is received, prepared, stored, packaged, served, vended, transported, or purchased.restricted from workRestriction means a school nutrition employee's activities are limited to prevent the risk of transmitting a disease through food. A restricted employee cannot handle exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, linens; or unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.What symptoms require exclusion from work?-Vomiting• -Diarrhea• -Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)• -Diagnosed with one of the Big 6 foodborne pathogens -Sore throat with fever if working with a highly susceptible population (e.g., preschool age children, immunocompromised people, or older adults)What symptoms require restriction at work?-Sore throat with fever if not working with a highly susceptible population (e.g. preschool-age children, immunocompromised people, or older adults) -Open wounds or cuts on the hands or arms that are not properly coveredWhat are some jobs that can be performed under restriction?-Cashier• -Stocking canned or packaged food products• -Cleaning and maintenance outside of production kitchenWhat are the employee's incorrect actions that contributed to the foodborne illness outbreak?-She did not report her symptoms of illness to her supervisor. -She wore her apron in the bathroom. -She did not wash her hands properly after throwing up in the restroom. -She wiped her hands on her apron. -She double gloved her hands. -She sneezed into her gloves, did not throw her gloves away, wash her hands, or put on a new pair of gloves. -She sneezed over the food. -She wiped her face with a towel and then used that towel to clean a scoop.What are some ways to prevent a foodborne illness?-Report symptoms to your supervisor.• -Exclude or restrict employees based on symptoms.• -Wash hands properly and at proper times.• -No bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.• -Replace gloves when they become dirty or when switching tasks.• -Protect an infected cut or wound with a bandage and a single use glove.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli symptomsSymptoms begin 3-8 days after eating contaminated food, can last 2-9 days, and include: • cramping, • diarrhea (watery or bloody), • vomiting, and • hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus)Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: where it can be found or common source• Intestinal tract of animals, particularly cattle and humans • Raw or undercooked ground beef • Raw milk or dairy products • Unpasteurized apple cider or juice • Imported cheeses • Dry salami• Uncooked fruits and vegetablesShiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevention strategies• Practice good personal hygiene. • Follow handwashing guidelines • Follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination. • Cook all poultry and meat to correct internal temperature, and confirm with a thermometer. • Use only pasteurized milk, dairy products, or juices. • Wash all produce in cold, running water. • Cool foods properlySalmonellosis Salmonella spp. (Nontyphoidal Salmonella): symptomsSymptoms begin 6-48 hours after eating contaminated food, last 1-2 days, and include: • diarrhea • vomiting, and • severe dehydration (infants and elderly). • stomach cramps • headache • nausea • feverSalmonellosis Salmonella spp. (Nontyphoidal Salmonella): where microorganism can be found or "common source"• Cocoa and chocolate • Sliced fresh fruits and vegetables such as melons, strawberries, or tomatoes • Raw sprouts • Peanut butter • Raw meats and poultry • Milk and dairy products • Fish and shrimp • Sauces and salad dressing • Cake mixes • Cream filled desserts and toppingsSalmonellosis Salmonella spp. (Nontyphoidal Salmonella): prevention strategies• Hold hot foods at 135 oF or above. • Cool foods properly. • Practice good personal hygeine • Follow handwashing guidelines • follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination • Cook all foods to correct internal temperature and confirm with a thermometerSalmonella Typhi (Typhoid Fever): symptomsSymptoms usually begin in 1-3 weeks, but may show as long as 2 months after exposure. Symptoms include: • high fever, • stomach pain, • diarrhea or constipation, • aches, • headaches, • fatigue, • loss of appetite, and • rash of flat, rose-colored spots.Salmonella Typhi (Typhoid Fever): where microorganisms can be found or "common source"• Unpasteurized milk and dairy products • Raw vegetables, fresh fruit, and salads washed with untreated or sewage-contaminated water • Raw fish, meats, and poultry • Untreated or fecal-contaminated water or ice • Intestinal tract of humansSalmonella Typhi (Typhoid Fever): prevention strategies• Ensure all foods are purchased from a safe supplier. • Cook all foods to correct internal temperature and confirm with a thermometer. • Use potable (clean) water for handwashing, cleaning, and sanitizing food contact surfaces and washing produce. • Report symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting and diagnosis of or exposure within the past 14 days to others with typhoid fever to your immediate supervisor. Do not work when you have these symptoms • Avoid bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods. • Follow handwashing guidelines.Shigella spp. (Shigellosis): symptomsSymptoms begin 12-50 hours after eating contaminated food, last up to 2 weeks, and include: • abdominal pain, • diarrhea containing blood/mucus, • fever, • nausea, • vomiting, • chills, • fatigue, and • dehydration.Shigella spp. (Shigellosis): where microorganism can be found or "common source"• Meat salads • Potato and pasta salads • Lettuce and other raw vegetables • Milk and dairy products • Ready-to-eat foods • Polluted water; spread by flies and food handlers • Intestinal tract of humansShigella spp. (Shigellosis): prevention strategies• Practice good personal hygiene. • Follow handwashing guidelines. • Follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination. • Use water from approved sources. • Control flies. • Maintain storage temperatures. • Cool foods properly.Norovirus (Norwalk and Norwalk-Like Viral Agents) SymptomsSymptoms begin 1-2 days after ingesting contaminated food or water and include: • nausea, • vomiting, • diarrhea, • abdominal pain, • headache, and • mild fever.Norovirus (Norwalk and Norwalk-Like Viral Agents) where microorganism can be• Raw vegetables, fresh fruit, and salads contaminated by dirty hands • Shellfish from contaminated water • Contaminated drinking waterNorovirus (Norwalk and Norwalk-Like Viral Agents) prevention strategies• Use water from approved sources. • Obtain shellfish from approved, health-inspected sources, and cook thoroughly. • Cook all foods to required internal temperatures, and confirm with a thermometer. • Wash all fresh produce to be served whole, peeled, or cooked, in cold, running water. • Follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination. • Practice good personal hygiene.Hepatovirus (Hepatitis A) symptomsSymptoms begin 10 days up to almost 2 months after ingesting contaminated food or water and include: -fever, -fatigue, -headache, -nausea, -loss of appetite, -vomiting, -stomach pain, and -later jaundice (yellow skin and eyes).Hepatovirus (Hepatitis A) where microorganism can be found or "common source"• Intestinal tract of humans • Human urinary tract • Contaminated water • Foods contaminated by food handlers, processing plants, or foodservice facilities • Foods of particular concern - prepared foods requiring no additional cooking: deli meats, salads, sandwiches,fruit and fruit juices, milk and dairy products, raw fruits and vegetablesHepatovirus (Hepatitis A) prevention strategies• Cook all foods to the required internal temperature, and confirm with a thermometer. • Use water from approved sources • Wash all fresh produce to be served whole, peeled, or cooked, in cold, running water. • Follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination. • Practice good personal hygiene.Clostridium botulinum (Botulism) symptomsSymptoms begin 18-36 hours after eating contaminated food and include: • weakness; • dizziness; • double vision or blurred vision; • difficulty speaking, swallowing, or breathing; and • paralysisClostridium botulinum (Botulism) common sources• Home-canned foods • Improperly processed foods • Sausages and meats • Canned low-acid foods, such as certain vegetables • Untreated garlic in oil • Leftover, unrefrigerated, foil-wrapped baked potatoes • Sautéed onions in butter sauceClostridium botulinum (Botulism) prevention strategies• Do not use home-canned foods in a food service establishment. • Discard damaged cans. • Do not mix and store oil and garlic. • Follow rules for time and temperature control. • Sauté onions as needed. Do not sauté and store unrefrigerated for later use. • Do not store leftover baked potatoes in foil wrapping. Unwrap and chill correctly. • Cool foods properly.Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacteriosis) symptomsSymptoms begin 2-5 days after eating contaminated food, can last 7-10 days, and include: -diarrhea (watery or bloody), -fever, -nausea and vomiting, -headache, and -muscle pain. -abdominal painCampylobacter jejuni (Campylobacteriosis) common sources• Unpasteurized milk and dairy products • Raw poultry • Raw beef • Non-chlorinated or fecal-contaminated water • Birds and flies can carry and contaminate foodCampylobacter jejuni (Campylobacteriosis) prevention strategies• Practice good personal hygiene. • Follow handwashing guidelines. • Follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination. • Cook all poultry, meat, and other foods to appropriate internal temperature and confirm with a thermometer. • Maintain good pest control. • Use only pasteurized dairy products. • Use water from approved sources.Clostridium perfringens symptomsSymptoms begin 8-24 hours after eating contaminated food, last 24 hours, and include: -abdominal cramping and -diarrhea.Clostridium perfringens "common source"• Intestinal tracts of humans and animals • Cooked meat and poultry • Gravy • BeansClostridium perfringens prevention strategies• Cook all foods to correct internal temperature and confirm with a thermometer. • Hold hot foods at 135 °F or above. • Cool foods properly. • Follow procedures to avoid cross-contamination. • Follow handwashing guidelines. • Practice good personal hygiene.Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis) symptomsSymptoms begin 3-70 days after eating contaminated food; 21-day onset is most common. Symptoms include: -sudden onset of fever, -muscle aches, -diarrhea or vomiting, -headaches, -stiff neck, -confusion, -loss of balance, and -convulsions.Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis) "common source"• Soft cheese such as feta, Brie, and Mexican-style cheeses • Prepared and chilled ready-to-eat foods • Deli meats, luncheon meats, hot dogs • Raw meat and fish • Unpasteurized milk and cheese • Ice cream • Raw vegetables • Raw and cooked poultry • In soil, ground water, plants, and intestinal tracts of humans and animalsListeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis) prevention strategies• Use only pasteurized milk, dairy products, or juices. • Wash all fresh produce in cold, running water. • Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces. • Maintain proper food temperatures • Cook all poultry and meat to correct internal temperature and confirm with a thermometer. • Follow procedures to avoid cross contamination. • Follow handwashing guidelines. • Practice good personal hygiene.Common TCS foodsdairy, soy protein, meats, poultry, sprouts, fish, shellfish, sliced melons, shell eggs, cut tomatoes, baked potatoes, cut leafy greens, heat treated plant based foods, untreated garlic/oil mixturesfreezing temperature32 F and 0 CBoiling temperature212 F and 100 Ctemperature for storage rooms for dried goods50-70 degrees Fstorage temp for refrigerator41 degrees F and belowstorage temp for freezers0 degrees Ffish needs to be cooked to __ degrees F145heat ready to eat foods to __ degrees F135heat ground meats to __ degrees F155heat poultry to __ degrees F165heat soups and casseroles to __ degrees F165with hamburgers use a __ thermometerdigitalIf a 3-compartment sink is used, setup and use the sink in the following manner:In the first compartment, wash with a clean detergent solution at or above 110 °F or at the temperature specified by the detergent manufacturer. In the second compartment, rinse with clean water. In the third compartment, sanitize with a sanitizing solution mixed at a concentration specified on the manufacturer's label or by immersing in hot water at or above 171 °F for 30 seconds. Test the chemical sanitizer concentration by using an appropriate test kit.What is the purpose of setting critical limits in a HACCP plan?To identify where hazards can be eliminatedWhat HACCP principle is being practiced when food handlers rewash melons that have surface dirt?Corrective actionMetal shavings are which type of contaminant?PhysicalWhich action requires a food handler to change gloves?The food handler is wearing gloves that have been tornWhat is the minimum internal cooking temperature for green beans that are hot-held for service?135˚F (57˚C)TCS food reheated for hot-holding must reach what temperature?165˚ (74˚C) for 15 secondsWhat type of thermocouple probe should be used to check the internal temperature of a beef roast?PenetrationWhat is the third step in cleaning and sanitizing items in a three-compartment sink?RinsingParasites are commonly associated withSeafood, wild game, and food processed with contaminated water, such as produceWhat should a foodservice operator do when responding to a foodborne-illness outbreak?Segregate the productWhat is the minimum water temperature required when using hot water to sanitize objects?171˚F (77˚C)What food safety practice can prevent cross-contact?Washing, rinsing, and sanitizing utensils before each useWhich food may be re-served to customers?Unopened pre-packaged foodWhat food item does the Food and Drug Administration advise against offering on a children's menu?Rare cheeseburgersWhich group of individuals has a higher risk of foodborne illness?Elderly peopleFood held at 41˚F (5˚C) or lower before being removed from refrigeration can be held without temperature control for up to how many hours?6What must a food handler with a hand-wound do to safely work with food?Bandage the wound with an impermeable cover and wear a single-use gloveHot TCS food can be held without temperature control for a maximum of4 hoursTo wash hands correctly, a food handler must firstwet hands and armsWhich is TCS food?baked potatoIn top-to-bottom order, how should a fresh beef roast, fresh halibut, lettuce, and a pan of ground chicken be stored in a cooler?Lettuce, fresh halibut, fresh beef roast, ground chickenIf a food-contact surface is in constant use, how often should it be cleaned and sanitized?Every 4 hoursWhat task requires food handlers to wash their hands before and after doing it?Handling raw meat, poultry, or seafoodWhat should foodservice operators do to prevent customer illness from Shigella spp.?Control flies inside and outside the operationWhat item is considered acceptable work attire for a food handler?Plain-band ringWhat is the final step in cleaning and sanitizing a prep table?Allowing the surface to air-dryWhen should a shipment of fresh chicken be rejected?The receiving temperature is 50˚F (10˚C)What is the maximum number of days that ready-to-eat food prepared on-site can be stored if held at 41˚F (5˚C)?7 daysWhere should staff members eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum?In designated areasWhat organization requires Safety Data Sheets?Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationWhen partial cooking food is to be finished later, what is the maximum cooking time allowed during initial cooking?60 minutesHow should the temperature of a shipment of cottage cheese be taken when it arrives at an operation?Place the thermometer stem into an opened containerCiguatera toxin is commonly found inAmberjackWhat method should never be used to thaw food?Place the item on a prep counterWhen can a food handler with a sore throat and a fever return to work with or around food?A written medical release is providedWhat is the minimum time an iodine sanitizer solution must be in contact with the object being sanitized?30 secondsWhat is a basic characteristic of a virus?Requires a living host to growWhere should groundfish be stored in a cooler?Below pork roastsWhat should foodservice operators do to prevent the spread of hepatitis A?Exclude staff with jaundice from the operationWhat is the most likely cause of wheezing and hives?Food allergiesHow should an item that has been recalled by its manufacturer be stored in an operation?Separately from food that will be servedWhen can a food handler diagnosed with jaundice return to work?When approved by the regulatory authorityWhich food item has been associated with Salmonella Typhi?BeveragesIn a self-service area, bulk unpackaged food does not need a label if the product...does not make a claim about health or nutrient content.What should food handlers do after leaving and returning to the prep area?Wash handsWhen can raw, unpackaged meat be offered for self-service?At Mongolian barbequesWhat is the purpose of hand antiseptic?Lower the number of pathogens on the skinWhen can glass thermometers be used?When enclosed in a shatterproof casingWhat should staff do when receiving a delivery of food and supplies?Visually inspect all food itemsWhat information must be included on the label of a container of ready-to-eat TCS food prepped on-site for retail sale?Potential allergensWhat strategy can prevent cross-contamination?Buy food that does not require preppingReady-to-eat TCS food prepped in-house must be date marked if it is held for more than how many hours?24 hoursWhat should be done with food that has been handled by a food handler who has been restricted or excluded from the operation due to illness?Throw it outWhat must food handlers do when handling ready-to-eat food?Wear single-use glovesWhat factors influence the effectiveness of a chemical sanitizer?concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and water hardnessA tuna salad is removed from the cooler at 9:00 a.m. and put out for a buffet at 11:00 a.m. By what time must the tuna salad be served or thrown out?3:00 p.mWhat causes preschool-age children to be at risk for foodborne illness?Their immune systems are not strongWhat practice is useful for preventing Norovirus from causing foodborne illness?Correct handwashingWhen should a food handler with a sore throat and fever be excluded from the operation?When the customers served are primarily a high-risk populationWhich is an example of physical contamination?Bones in fishWhat thermometer is best suited to checking a dishwashing machine's final rinse temperature?Maximum registering thermometerWhat condition promotes the growth of bacteria?Food held between 70F and 125FWhat must a food handler with an infected hand wound do to work safely with food?Cover the wound with an impermeable cover and wear a single-use gloveWhat practice can help prevent allergic reactions?Identifying ingredients for customersWhat must staff members do when transferring chemicals to a new container?Label the containerWhat symptoms can indicate a customer is having an allergic reaction?Wheezing or shortness of breathHow should staff make sure the chemical sanitizer being used on a food-prep surface is at the correct strength?Use a test kit to check the sanitizer's concentration when mixing itA food handler comes to work with diarrhea. What should the manager tell the food handler to do?Go homeWhich of these food processes does not require a variance from a regulatory authority?Buying bean sprouts from a reputable supplierLasagna was removed from hot holding for service at 11:00 am. By what time must it be served or thrown out?3:00 p.m.What does the L stand for in the FDA's ALERT tool?LookFDA ALERTAssure (make sure products are received from safe sources) Look (monitor the security of products in the facility) Employees (know who is in your facility) Reports (keep information related to food defense accessible) Threat (develop a plan for responding to suspicious activity or a threat to the operation)What should a server do when taking a food order from customers who have concerns about food allergies?Describe each menu item to customers who ask, including any "secret" ingredientsFATTOMFood, Acidity, Temperature, Time, Oxygen, MoistureWhat should a server do after clearing a table?wash handsHow many hours can cold food be held without refrigeration before it must be sold, served, or thrown out?6 hrsWhat is the minimum internal temperature hot food must be held at to prevent pathogens from growing?135 ̊F (57 ̊C)What should a food handler do with food after it is thawed in the microwave?Cook it using conventional cooking equipmentWhy are people who take certain medications at risk for foodborne illness?Their immune systems are compromisedThe temperature of clam chowder is checked during holding. According to the operation's policy, the chowder must be thrown out. What HACCP principle is being practiced by throwing out the soup?Corrective actionNursing home cafeteria staff are creating new menu items for a breakfast for residents and their family members. What item is not safe to serve?Soft boiled eggsA food handler is prepping a seafood dish on April 4, using shrimp and scallops. The shrimp has a use-by date of April 8, and the scallops have a use-by date of April 10. What is the use-by date for the seafood dish?April 8Which process requires a variance from the regulatory authority?Sprouting seeds or beansWhat temperature must stuffed lobster be cooked to?165 °F (74 °C) for 15 secondsWhat information must be included on the label of food packaged on-site for retail sale?List of ingredientsWhat temperatures do infrared thermometers measure?surfaceWhat scenario can lead to pest infestation?Storing recyclables in paper bagsWhat should be done with preset, unwrapped utensils that appear to be unused after guests have left the table?Clean and sanitize the utensilsHow should chemicals be stored?Away from prep areasWhat rule for serving bread should food handlers practice?Do not re-serve uneaten breadBulk unpackaged food in self-service areas must be labeled when...the manufacturer claims the food is healthy.What must an operation do before packaging fresh juice on-site for later sale?Obtain a varianceWhat should be done with a package of flour that is received with signs of dampness on the bag?Reject the flour and return it to the supplierWhat is the minimum internal cooking temperature for chicken breast?165 °F (74 °C) for 15 secondsWhich organization includes inspecting food as one of its primary responsibilities?U.S. Department of AgricultureA food handler has just finished storing a dry food delivery. Which step was done correctly?Stored food away from the wallWhere should a food handler wash his or her hands after prepping food?Designated sink for handwashingWhich responsibility is included in the Food and Drug Administration's role?Regulating food transported across state linesA local nursing home has a yearly barbecue for its residents. Which food item should not be served?Rare hamburgersWhat is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?Conduct a hazard analysisWhat temperature should the water be for manual dishwashing?Must be at least 110 ̊F (43 ̊C)What symptom requires a food handler to be excluded from the operation?JaundiceThe temperature of the duck breast is checked during cooking. According to the operation's policy, the duck breast must be cooked for 16 minutes to allow the internal temperature to reach 165 F (74 C). What HACCP principle is addressed by cooking the duck breast to 165 F (74 C)?Critical limitParasites are commonly associated with what food?seafoodWhat practice should be used to prevent seafood toxins from causing a foodborne illness?Purchasing food from approved, reputable suppliersWhat is a cross-connection?Physical link between safe water and dirty waterWhat information must be posted on a dishwasher?correct settingsWhat rule for serving condiments should be practiced?Serve condiments in original containersA food handler has cooled a container of chili to 70°F (21 °C) in 1 hour. How much time is left to cool the chili to 41°F (5 °C)?5 hoursWhat temperature must cooked vegetables reach to be safely hot-held for service?135 °F (57 °C)What should a food handler do to make gloves easier to put on?Select the correct size glovesWhat type of eggs must be used when preparing raw or undercooked dishes for high-risk populations?PasteurizedWhat temperature must a high-temperature dishwasher's final sanitizing rinse be?At least 180 ̊F (82 ̊C)When must a food handler change gloves?At the end of the shiftWhat is the first step of cleaning and sanitizing stationary equipment?Unplug the unitWhich item is a potential physical contaminant?jewelrySingle-use gloves are not required when...washing produce.What organization requires a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) to be included with hazardous chemicals?Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationWhat is the minimum internal cooking temperature for a veal chop?145 ̊F (63 ̊C)Why should food temperatures be taken in 2 different locations?Temperature may vary in the foodWhen transporting food off-site, how should information such as a use-by date and time be communicated to the off-site staff?Labels on foodwhich item should be rejected? bags of orgainc cookies in torn packaging, bottled milk at 41°F, shell eggs at an air temp of 45°F, or Live oysters at 50°F.Bags of organic cookies in torn packagingTCS foods includeMilk, Eggs, Shellfish, Fish, Meats, Meat Alternatives, Untreated Garlic & Oil Mixtures, Baked Potatoes, Raw Sprouts, Cooked Rice, Cut Tomatoes, Cut Melonsthe big eight allergensmilk, soy, eggs, wheat, fish, crustacean, peanuts, tree nutslive shellfish recieverecieve at 45 degrees F and internal temperature at or less than 50 degrees Fmilk and shell eggs recieve45 degrees F or lowerminimum cooking temperature of seafood, whole cuts of beef/pork, ground meat/fish, and whole/ground poultry145, 145, 155, and 165 degrees Fwhat items must be heated to 165 degrees F for 15 seconds?poultry, stuffing (meat added), stuffed meats, dishes cooked with TCS ingredientswhat items must be heated to 155 degrees F for 15 seconds?ground meat, injected meat, tenderized meat, ratites (flightless birds with flat breastbones like ostrich and emu), ground seafood, shelled eggs that will be hot heldwhat items must be heated to 145 degrees F for 15 seconds?seafood, steaks, chops of pork, chops of beef, chops of veal, chops of lamb, comercially raised game, and immediately served shelled eggswhat items must be heated to 145 degrees F for 4 mins?roasts of pork, beef, veal, and lambwhat items must be heated to 135 degrees Ffruits, veggies, grains, and legumes that are hot helddisclosuretelling that TCS items that are raw or undercooked or contains raw undercooked ingredients before cookingremindernotice at the end of the menu that explains what consuming raw or undercooked TCS foods can lead to increased foodborne illnesseshow to cool hot foodcool from 135 to 70 degrees F within 2 hours and then cool from 70 to 41 degrees F or lower in the next four hoursFloor mounted equipmentOn legs at least 6 inches high or sealed to a masonry baseTabletop equipmentOn legs at least 4 inches high or sealed to countertoppotable waterwater that is safe to drinkbackflowThe flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent this from happening.BacksiphonageA vacuum created in the plumbing system that sucks contaminants back into the water supplyVacuum BreakerApparatus that prevents the back-siphoning of contaminated liquids into potable water supply lines or plumbing cross-connections within the preparation room.Grease condensationA buildup of grease in pipes is another common problem in plumbing systems.
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