Developmental Psychology M/C Exam

The ability to reason abstractly is a characteristic of which of the following stages of development?

- preconventional
- preoperational
- formal operational
- postconventional
- concrete operational
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Modifying our existing schemas to incorporate new information is to _____________; while incorporating new information into existing schemas is an example is to_____________. - object permanence; insecure attachment - accommodation; assimilation - sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage - imprinting; maturation - conservation; habituation- accommodation; assimilationDr. Ebert is conducting an experiment with young children. She is interested in the reaction of the child when placed in a setting with a stranger and then their reaction upon their mother's return. Dr. Ebert is likely studying: - attachment. - the rooting reflex. - conservation. - Habituation. - egocentrism.- attachment. Attachment is an emotional tie between caregiver and child.An understanding that mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in appearance is called: - conservation. - accommodation. - object permanence. - perceptual constancy. - object equivalence.- conservation. Part of Piaget's concrete operational reasoning, the idea that quantities, mass, and volume remain the same despite change in forms.Rosco and Brian are brothers. Rosco exhibits a very laid back disposition, while Brian exhibits stress and anxiety. The two are strikingly different in: - temperament. - intelligence. - brain maturation. - gender schemas. - physical health.- temperament. Temperament is a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity._____________ is a survival impulse in which infants seek closeness to their caregivers. - Assimilation - Attachment - The rooting reflex - Imprinting - Habituation- Attachment Attachment is an emotional tie with another person, it serves as a survival instinct in young children.Slow responses by caregivers to an infant's cries of distress are likely to create: - insecure attachment. - habituation. - object permanence. - conservation. - egocentrism.- insecure attachment. Inconsistent nurture and care during an infant's early life can lead to insecure attachments later on.Egocentrism is a character of which of the following stages of Piaget's development? - sensorimotor - accommodation - preoperational - concrete operational - formal operational- preoperational Egocentrism is a characteristic of the preoperational stage. It describes the inability to see things from another's point of view.The harmful effects of alcohol on a developing fetus as illustrated by a baby born with FAS reinforces the notion that alcohol is a: - teratogen. - neurotransmitter. - form of DNA. - hallucinogen. - placebo.- teratogen.In the first stage of human prenatal development the organism begins as a(n): - fetus and finally develops into an embryo. - zygote and finally develops into a fetus. - zygote and finally develops into an embryo. - embryo and finally develops into a fetus - embryo and finally develops into a zygote.- zygote and finally develops into a fetus.Concepts or frameworks that organize information are called: - neural network. - assimilation. - Attachment. - schema. - temperament.- schema.A child who perceives their parents as cold and rejecting has most likely formed: - crystallized intelligence. - insecure attachment. - accommodation. - egocentrism. - habituation.- insecure attachment. Insecure attachments are characterized by a child who is indifferent when a caregiver leaves or returns and has not felt responsiveness to needs or in times of distress.At the end of Harry Harlow's studies on attachment it was concluded that: - nourishment was the greatest motivating factor - lack of playmates caused greater independence - the type of food offered was a variable - imprinting was more important than bonds - contact comfort was preferred over nourishment- contact comfort was preferred over nourishment Harry Harlow concluded that the need for contact comfort outweighed the need for nourishment. The monkeys would spend the majority of their time with the soft cloth mother.Kindred understands that a roll of pennies spread out on a table and a roll of pennies still in the roll are the same amount. This demonstrates an understanding of the Piagetian concept of: - accommodation - assimilation - conservation - critical periods - object permanence- conservation Conservation is the idea that a change in physical form does not change the properties of an object.Morality based on avoiding punishment and obtaining rewards is called _________ morality. - conventional - concrete operational - postconventional - preconventional - egocentric- preconventionalIf a pregnant woman ingests a drug, that causes harm to the developing fetus, the drug is considered a(n): - neurotransmitter. - depressant. - form of DNA. - teratogen. - FAS.- teratogen.Jason cried when his mother left him at the YMCA daycare and was indifferent upon her return. His behavior illustrates: - insecure attachment. - Habituation. - conservation. - assimilation. - Egocentrism.- insecure attachment. Insecure attachment is formed when care in early life is inconsistent.The Sindersine's want to potty train their second child. It is important to remember that potty training will not be successful unless the child is physically ready. This best illustrates the concept of: - habituation. - maturation. - object permanence. - imprinting. - fluid intelligence.- maturation.Piaget is best know for his work studying the _____________ development of children. - emotional - social - motor - physical - cognitive- cognitiveConservation is acquired at which stage of Piaget's stages of cognitive development? - preoperational stage - critical period - sensorimotor - concrete operational stage - post-operational stage- concrete operational stage The understanding of the principle of conservation is acquired during the concrete operational stage.According to Erikson, the sense of basic trust in infancy is achieved if: - habituation occurs. - object permanence is achieved. - inborn temperament is good. - responsive parenting takes place. - accommodation takes place.- responsive parenting takes place. During infancy if the parent meets the needs and demands of the infant basic trust will develop.When we adjust our current schemas to make sense of new information it is called: - maturation. - habituation. - egocentrism. - accommodation. - assimilation.- accommodation.Acquiring a sense of object permanence occurs closely to the development of: - egocentrism. - stranger anxiety. - concrete operational intelligence. - conservation. - self-awareness.- stranger anxiety. As object permanence is acquired children also begin to develop a sense of stranger anxiety.Xanax is a chemical that mimics the action of GABA at the receptor site. Xanax is a(n): - endorphin antagonist. - GABA agonist. - endorphin agonist. - GABA antagonist. - serotonin agonist.- GABA agonist. Agonists mimic or enhance the effects of neurotransmitters making them fire.Chemical messages of the endocrine system are called: - hormones. - neurotransmitters. - dendrites. - terminal buttons. - mylein sheath.- hormones. Hormones are manufactured by the endocrine glands and are the chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream affecting other tissues.Which of the following endocrine system gland is sometimes called the "master gland"? - pituitary gland - thyroid gland - pancreas - sex gland - adrenal gland- pituitary gland The pituitary gland controls all the other glands in the body and is therefore sometimes called the "master gland".If a pair of identical twins are separated at birth and raised apart it is likely that they will share similar: - food preferences. - temperaments. - norms. - religious beliefs. - gender schemas.- temperaments. The common estimate is around 40-45% of our temperaments are due to genetic factors.The theory that states that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating. - gender schema theory - social learning theory - evolutionary theory - common sense theory - view and repeat theory- social learning theoryMark believes that people are genetically predisposed to fear snakes because this has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the ________ perspective. - cognitive - psychodynamic - behavioral - social-cultural - Evolutionary- Evolutionary The evolutionary perspective can be used to explain phobias or dislikes in that the things we fear or dislike could have harmed our ancestors.Dr. Mercier is studying the consistently of traits over time. Dr. Mercier is most likely a(n): - clinical psychologist. - developmental psychologist. - industrial/organizational psychologist. - personality psychologist. - psychiatrist.- personality psychologist. Personality psychologists investigate persistent traits over time.Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association? - Jean Piaget - Francis Bacon - Mary Calkins - Rosalie Rayner - Margaret Washburn- Mary Calkins William Jame's admitted Mary Calkins into his graduate seminar dismissing the objections of Harvard's president. She would later become the first female president of the American Psychological Association.