How long is a child`s vocal tract?
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Terms in this set (147)
Formant 3 (F3)lip positionF1 is always ____ in frequency compared to F2.lowSource-Filter Theory of Vowel ProductionDescribes how oral cavity shapes speech States that a voicing source is generated by vocal folds, routed through vocal tract, and then shaped into sounds of speechSource functionspectrum of the glottal sourceTransfer function(resonance curve) process in which human vocal tract resonators alter the relative harmonic intensity of vocal energy to create spectra that we perceive as voiced speech soundsOutput functionthe sound that emerges from the lipsF2 is higher than F1 due to ____The shorter length of the oral cavityIn adults, the pharynx and oral/nasal cavities meet at _____90 degreesIn young children, the cavities meet at _____greater than 90 degreesResonant frequenciesthe specific frequencies at which an oscillating object resonatesThe longer the tube, the ______ the fundamental frequencylower_______ occurs around the right angle between the pharynx and cavitiesDiffraction________ occurs at hard or soft surfacesReflection/absorptionResonators are _____filtersResonators _____ waves that are near resonant frequenciesamplifyResonators _____ waves that are away from resonant frequenciesdampenQuarter wave resonator formulaF0 = 344 / (4L)What type of resonator does the vocal tract create?HelmholtzChanging tongue/articulator positions changes the _____ of different harmonics and ______ stays the sameamplitude, fundamental freuquencyAll vocal sounds begin in the _____glottisF0rate of vibration of vocal foldsF0 has the greatest ______intensitySpectral slope is typically _____12 dB per octaveDifferent vowels are defined by different _____ values of F1 and F2relativeFor schwa, the oral cavity and pharynx have equal ______volumeHigh vowels have a lower ___F1Back vowels have a lower _____F2A spetrogram displays relative ______ of different frequencies in a sound over timeintensityHorizontal axis of a spectrogramtimeVertical axis of a spectrogramfrequency (Hz)Dark lines on a spectrogram signifyintensityNarrowband45-50 Hz, displays fundamental frequencies and individual harmonicsWideband300-500 Hz, displays formant structures and shape of individual soundsFront Vowels (spectrogram)Have large F1 and F2 separation and a higher F2 frequencyCentral vowels (spectrogram)even spacing across all 3 formantsBack Vowels (spectrogram)F1 and F2 are close together, F3 is separateMonophthongs are relatively _____stableDiphthongs are relatively _____unstableWhat creates a "shunt" resonator?NasalsNasal murmur is strong in ______ frequencieslowWhat is nasal murmur?Sound exiting the noseNasals have a ______ nasal cavity resonancegreaterClosure of the oral-cavity adds _____anti-formantsAnti-formantarea of little energy produced when the oral cavity is not allowed to resonate (dampening)White bands are areas of ______no energyNasal formant frequencies range between ______250-300 HzWhat is another name for glides?Semi-vowelsLip rounding leads to very ____ frequencies for /w/lowSonorants are _____steady-state soundsSonorantsnasals, liquids, glides, vowelsSteady-state soundsCorner vowelsi, æ, a, uVowels are _____ _____ soundsperiodic complexMonophthongspure vowels composed of a single configuration of the vocal tractDiphthongsTwo-vowel combinations where both vowels are heard, but not quite making their usual sounds because of the blending (i.e. oi in TOY)Onglidefirst element of a diphthongOffglidesecond element of a diphthongRhotic soundssounds that have /r/ coloring, seen acoustically in a characteristic lowering of F3Silent gaptime on a spectrogram of a stop sound during which no sound is seen because pressure is building upRelease burstbrief interval of aperiodic sound which follows the silent gapvoice onset time (VOT)the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibratingPrevoicing VOT lead-negative value, indicating VFs vibrating before the articulatory release occurs.Short VOT lag- up to 20 ms - vocal folds vibrate shortly after the articulatory release; voiced or voice(less) nonaspiratedLong VOT lag- up to 100 ms - vocal folds vibration is delayed for a longer period after the articulatory release; aspiratedEnglish /r/ is usually ______retroflexedStops create _______ _______aperiodic soundCharacteristics of stops1. Silent gap 2. Release burst 3. VOT 4. Formant transitionsIn a silent gap, pressure builds behind the _____oral cavityVoiceless stops have _____ release bursts than voicedlongerBilabial release burst characterisitcs:spread out, extra low frequency energyAlveolar release burst characteristicsvery small front cavity, energy in high frequenciesVelar relase burst characteristicslarger front cavity, energy in middle frequenciesRelease bursts are influenced by ______formants for the following vowelAt what age do children develop VOT distinctions?11 years oldFormant transitions last for ____50 msFor formant transitions, ____ drops and then rises for following vowels.F1For formant transitions, ____ varies based on place of articulation.F2F2 will not rise for ____ ____back vowelsStrident (sibilant) fricatives/s, z, ʃ, ʒ/Nonstrident fricatives/f, v, θ, ð/Fricatives are continuous _____ _____aperiodic noiseAffricatescombination of stop and fricative /ch, dʒ/Anticipatory (regressive) coarticulation (right to left)the production of a phoneme is affected by a phoneme that occurs after it ex. lip rounding in "sue"Carryover coarticulation (left to right)sound influences a following articulation ex. nasalization of /a/ in "not" (nasal murmur)Speaking ratehow fast or slow you speak measured in phonemes, syllables, or words per secondTrue or False: Anticipatory and Carryover articulation can happen simultaneously?TrueArticulation ratespeaking rate without pausesFaster speaking rate leads to _____ coarticulationgreaterSuprasegmentalspitch, volume, intonation, duration, stressIntonation of a question has ______ contourrisingIntonation of a declarative sentence has ____ contourflat/fallingIntonation has a variation in ____F0Intonation usually signifies the type of ______sentenceStress varies in ______, ______, and ______frequency, intensity, duration (any combo)Stress can influence _____articulationLanguage-dependent stress patternstressed syllables in wordsLexical stress patternchanges the part of speech ex. subject, record, digestConversational stress patternclarifies meaning in a sentence ex. I didn`t cheat on that test.What affects intelligibility?precision of articulation, nasal resonance, rate of speechPhonatory factors that impact intelligibility:1. Voice quality 2. Loudness 3. Pitch 4. ProsodyArticulation/phonetic tests can show which sounds are the issue, but not ________the cause of the errorUltrasounds show soundwaves that are above1 MHzThe _____ the wavelength, the less likely a wave is to bend around object (diffract)shorterSpeech ultrasound help visualize the _____tongueA sagittal view shows tongue _____, _____, and _____height, advancement, and slopeA coronal view of the tongue shows _______midline vs sidesHow does the length of the vocal tract impact sound production?Acts as a filter and amplifies waves near resonant frequenciesThe transfer function is what part of the source-filter theory?FilterDifferent vowels are defined byrelative values of F1 and F2True or False: Obstruents must be voicedFalseTrue or False: Sonorants must be voicedTrueAs speaking rate increases, coarticulation _____increasesWhat is the average speaking rate for a dysarthric speaker?3 syllables/secondVowel Articulation Index measures _____the distance the tongue moves between corner vowelsOvershoot occurs when the tongue has _____too much contact with the palateBacking refers to when the tongue is _____too far back in the mouthFronting refers to when the tongue is _____too far forward in the mouthUndershoot occurs when the tongue has ____too little contact with the palateproductive patternschild can perceive the contrasts between speech soundsNon-productive patternschild can not perceive the contrasts between speech soundsCharacteristics of stuttering- Longer VOT - Longer vowel durations - Movement between articulatory positions takes longer - Formant transitions are significantly lowerWhat is the cut-off for hypernasality?30% nasalanceResonance problems are caused byParalysis or clefts in the palateCleft palates cause- Use tongue dorsum for closure more than other articulators - Pulling consonants more centrallyA lisp is an examples of adistortionPhonological processespatterns of sound errors that typically developing children use to simplify speech as they are learning to talkHypoarticulation is commonly found in people withdysarthria/apraxiaDysarthriaslurred speech, paralyzed muscles, uncoordinatedApraxiamuscles are fine, nerves don`t sequence correctlyA healthy individual speaks ____ syllables/second5Formant Centralization Ratio measures- inverse of VAI - increases as vowels become more centralizedFront bilabial sounds have_______ F2lowerIn F2 transitions, bilabial stops drop to about _____600-800 HzIn F2 transitions, alveolar stops stay steady at about _____1800 HzIn F2 transitions, velar stops usually rise to about _____2300 HzAffricates are shorter than _____fricativesAffricates have a silent gap followed by continuous _______aperiodic noise