Ch. 6: Language and Ch.7: Religion

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Terms in this set (69)
Proto-Indo-European1st major linguistic hypothesis, proposed the existence of an ancestral Indo-European Language Example: Gave us HEARTH of Ancient Latin, Greek, and SanskritBackward Reconstructiontechniques used to track sound shifts "backwards" toward the original language Example: Reproducing Proto-Indo-EuropeanExtinct Languagea language which is no longer natively spoken Examples: Coptic, Carian, Garza, AlseaDeep Reconstructionwhen a language is reproduced from its beginnings Example: Old EnglishNostraticthe core of a pre Proto-Indo-European Language Examples: Indo-EuropeanLanguage Divergencenew languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects Examples: Spanish and PortugueseLanguage Convergencecollapsing of two languages into one Example: Maltese LanguageRenfrew Hypothesisthree areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families Examples: Indo-European languages, Northern African & Arabic languages, and Languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and IndiaConquest Theorytheory of how Proto-Indo-European language diffused into Europe Examples: Russia and KazakhstanDispersal Hypothesisthe spread of languages linked with Agriculture Example: Egyptian, Westward DispersalRomance LanguagesLanguages that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed Examples: Spanish, French, ItalianGermanic LanguagesLanguages that reflect the expansion of people out of Northern Europe to the west and south Examples: German, Danish, SwedenSlavic LanguagesLanguages that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2,000 years ago Examples: Russian, Polish, Czech, SlovenianLingua FrancaLanguage used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce Example: SwahiliPidgin Languagea mixture of languages Example: Chinese Pidgin EnglishCreole Languagea stable language resulting from the blend of two or more languages which often doesn't include feautures of either Example: HaitianMonolingual Statesnations that have only 1 official language Examples: Japan, Poland, PortugalMultilingual Statesnations that have more than 1 official language Examples: Switzerland, Canada, BelgiumOfficial Languagea language in which all government business in conducted Examples: Arabic is the official language in Algeria Greek is the official language in Greece Italian is the official language in ItalyGlobal Languagea common language of trade and commerce used around the world Example: EnglishPlaceuniqueness of a location Examples: Physical Characteristics: Mountains and Rivers Human Characteristics: Buildings and RoadsToponymdifferent place names Examples: Rocky Mountains, San FranciscoReligionis a belief in the existence of a superhuman controlling power usually expressed in worship Examples: Christianity, Judaism, IslamSecularisma doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations Example: Public Education EATING & BATHING are SECULAR ACTIVITIESMonotheistic Religionbelieves in only one god Example: JudaismPolytheistic Religionbelieves in multiple gods Example: HinduismAnimistic Religionthe belief in the existence of individual spirits that inhabit natural objects and phenomena. Examples: Voodoo, Eco-Pagans, ShintoismUniversalizing Religionwhere members actively try to convert others Example: ChristianityEthnic Religionreligion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people Examples: Hinduism, JudaismHinduismoldest religion, originated in Pakistan, and became highly developed in India Example: ReincarnationCaste Systemstrict social segregation of people on the basis of ancestry and occupation Example: IndiaBuddhismreligion founded in the sixth century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge Example: NirvanaShintoismlocated in Japan, related to Buddhism, focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship Examples: Kami, PurificationTaoismreligion believed to have been founded by Lao Tzu, and based upon his book Example: Wu Wei or non-doingFeng Shuiliterally "wind water" The chinese art and science of placement and orientation Examples: furnishing, GeomancyConfucianisma philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius Examples: Relationships, Chung or loyalty to the stateJudaisma religion of ancient Hebrews, said to be one of the first monotheistic faiths Examples: Torah, Shabbat, Talmud, TallitDiasporaforceful or voluntary scattering of people from their homeland to a new place Examples: Jewish, AfricanZionismmovement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land Example: NationalismChristianitythe world's largest religion based on the teachings of Jesus Example: The BibleEastern Orthodox Churchbranch of Christianity that split from Roman Catholic Church in 1054 AD Example: Sacred Mysteries (Sacraments)Roman Catholic Churchbranch of Christianity that arose out of division of Roman Empire, centered in Rome Example: The Pope (religious leader)Protestantbranch of Christianity that originated with the principles of Reformation Example: Five Solas or Five Latin PhrasesIslamthe youngest of the major world religions, it is based on the teachings of Muhammad Examples: Five Pillars, Six Articles of FaithSunnibranch of Islam that has the largest percentage of Muslims, and are more liberal than Shiites Example: Effectiveness of family and communityShi'itebranch of Islam that consists of only 15 to 20 percent of all Muslims, concentrated in Iran Example: Imam (Shi'ite Muslim leaders)Shamanisma community faith in which people follow their shaman, a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary Example: Have appeared to various people in AfricaPilgrimagejourney to a destination with spiritual meaning Example: Jewish pilgrimage to Western WallSacred Sitesplaces or spaces people infuse with religious meaning Example: Western WallMinaretstower attached to a Muslim mosque Example: In Islamic CommunitiesHajjMuslim pilgrimage to Mecca Example: One of the Five Pillars of IslamInterfaith BoundariesBoundaries between the world's major faiths Examples: Christianity, Muslim, and BuddhismIntrafaith BoundariesBoundaries within a single major faith Examples: Divsions between Muslim Sunni and Shi'ite, Divisions between Christian Protestants and CatholicsGenocideSystematic killing of an entire people or nation Example: HolocaustActivity spacethe space within which daily activity occurs Example: ClassroomReligious Fundamentalismreligious movement whose objective are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy Examples: Islamic, Christian, and Jewish FundamentalismReligious extremismreligious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence Example: 9/11Shari'a Lawsthe system of Islamic law Example: Criminal codeJihadan Islamic holy war Example: Attacks on the World Trade Center