How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

39 terms

Histology - Cartilage & Bones

UNTHSC - Upper Extremities Anatomy Exam 2
STUDY
PLAY
Cartilage types
1. Fibrocartilage
2. Elastic Cartilage
3. Hyaline cartilage
Cartilage matrix
40% fibers - Collagen & Elastin
60% ground substance - Glycosaminoglycans - Chondroitin sulfate & Hyaluronic acid
Cells of cartilage
1. Chondroblasts
2. Chondrocytes
Hyaline cartilage location
Nose, upper respiratory passage, costal, articular (on leg joints)
Hyaline cartilage
1. Homogenously staining matrix
2. Basophilic matrix - Collagen II
3. Low cell : matrix ratio
4. Cells evenly distributed
5. Perichondrium
Perichondrium - Inner layer
1. Collagen fibers
2. Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Cells
3. Capillaries
Perichondrium - Outer layer
1. Collagen fibers
2. Fibroblasts
3. Larger Blood Vessels
Chondroblast
1. Spindle-shaped
2. Small Oval to Round Nucleus
3. Basophilic Cytoplasm
4. Little Distance Between Cells
Chondrocyte
1. Rounded or Angular
2. Small Round Nucleus
3. Less Basophilic Cytoplasm
4. Larger Distance Between Cells
5. Smooth Surface Under LM
Growth of Cartilage
1. Appositional
2. Interstitial (Mitosis & Matrix synthesis)
Elastic cartilage location
1. Pharyngo-typanic tubes
2. Pinna of ear
3. Epiglottis
4. Certain laryngeal cartilages
Elastic cartilage
1. Elastic fibers in matrix
2. Acidophilic matrix
3. High cell : matrix ratio
5. Perichondrium
Fibrocartilage location
1. Rim around ball & socket joints
2. Intervertebral discs
3. Pubic symphysis
4. Miniscus of knee
5. Insertion of Achilles tendon
Fibrocartilage
1. Collagen fibers in matrix
2. Acidophilic matrix - Collagen I
3. Little amorphous matrix
4. Linear arrangement of cells
5. No perichondrium
Function of Bone
1. Locomotion
2. Protection
3. Mineral reservoir
Bone
1. Osseous connective tissue - Cells & Intercellular matrix
2. Types - Spongy/Cancellous & Compact/Dense
3. Periosteum
4. Endosteum
Intercellular matrix
1. Homogenous
2. Ordered structure
3. Components - Organic/Inorganic
Organic matrix
1. 35%
2. Collagenous fibers
3. Amorphous ground substance (5%) - Gllycosaminoglycans & Glycoproteins
Inorganic matrix
1. 65%
2. Hydroxyapatite crystals
3. Citrate, carbonate
4. Na, Mg, Mn
5. Cl
6. Lamellae - parallel fibers w/ lamellae, 90* angel w/ adjacent fibers
Osteon
Circular, functional unit of bone: Contains nerve & blood supply
1. Haversian canal
2. Concentric lamellae
3. Collagen fibers
Lacunae
Contains active osteocytes
Periosteum
1. Fibrous sheath
2. Outer layer - collagen & elastic fibers; fibroblasts; larger blood vessels
3. Inner layer - loosely arranged collagen fibers; osteoprogenitor cells; capillaries; osteoblasts
Sharpey's fibers
Anchor periosteum to outer circumferential lamellae
Endosteum
1. Delicate layer
2. Lines Marrow cavity
3. Reticular Tissue with Osteogenic Potencies
Compact bone
1. Regular arrangement of lamellae
2. Haversian/Volkman's canals
3. Haversian system - 5-15 concentric lamellae; osteon; unit of structure
Spongy bone
1. Network of Trabecular
2. Trabeculae composed of lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes and canaliculi
3. Woven bone (immature)
Development and Growth of Bone
1. Canalicular system
2. Vascular
3. Only appositional growth
4. Bone is not static
Bone cells
1. Osteoprogenitor cells
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteocytes
4. Osteoclasts
Osteoprogenitor cell
1. Spindle shaped
2. Pale oval nucleus
3. Pale cytoplasm
Osteoblast
1. Synthesize fibers & ground substance
2. Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
3. Polarized nucleus
4. Basophilic cytoplasm
5. Close apposition
6. Continuous layer
7. Originates from osteoprogenitor cells
Osteocyte
1. Mature cell of osteoblast
2. Lacunae, surrounded by matrix
3. Flattened, oval
4. Oval nucleus
5. Acidophilic
6. Cytoplasmic processes in canaliculi
Osteoclast
1. Bone resorption
2. Multinucleated
3. Acidophilic
4. Brush border
5. Occur singly
6. Surface depressions - Howship's Lacunae
7. Originates from monocytes
Types of Bone Development
1. Intramembranous
2. Endochondral
Intramembranous Bone Development
1. Skull bones
2. Differentiation of mesenchymal sheet - osteogenic cells & osteoblasts
3. Secretion of osteoid
4. Incorporation of osteoblasts, transform to osteocytes
5. Mineralization of matrix
6. Layer of osteoblasts
7. Cancellous bone
8. Compact bone
9. Replacement of woven bone with lamellar bone
Endochondral Bone Formation
1. Long bones
2. Cartilage model with perichondrium
3. Periosteal Bone Ring or Collar
4. Periosteum
5. Diaphysis Center Changes - Cells hypertrophy; blood vessels invade through periostial bud
6. Primary center of ossification
7. Periosteal collar thickens
Zones of Endochondral Bone Formation
1. Resting/Reserve zone
2. Zone of Proliferation/Matrix formation
3. Zone of maturation
4. Zone of calficiation/retrogression
5. Zone of ossification (metaphysis)
Secondry centers of ossification
1. Birth
2. Epiphysis
3. Ossification spreads peripherally - articular surfaces; epiphyseal plate/disc
4. Growth of cartilage
Types of Bone
1. Immature (Woven) - Compact & Cancellous
2. Mature (lamellar) - Compact & Cancellous
Substances which act on bone
1. Adrenal corticoids
2. Calcitonin - lowers calcium
3. Vit. D
4. Estrogens
5. Growth hormone
6. Parathyroid hormone - raises calcium
7. Prostaglandins
8. Thyroxine