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Chapter 5 : Basic Cryptography
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Terms in this set (50)
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST
in late 2000 as a replacement for DES.
asymmetric cryptographic algorithm
Cryptography that uses two mathematically related
keys.
block cipher
A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.
Blowfish
A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits.
ciphertext
Data that has been encrypted.
cleartext
Unencrypted data.
cryptography
The science of transforming information into a secure form so that unauthorized persons cannot access it.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and
encrypts data in 64-bit blocks.
decryption
The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext.
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
A key exchange that requires all parties to agree upon a large prime number and related integer so that the same key can be separately created.
Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (DHE)
A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses different keys.
digest
The unique digital fingerprint created by a one-way hash algorithm.
digital signature
An electronic verification of the sender.
elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)
An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime
numbers to compute keys.
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH)
A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses elliptic
curve cryptography instead of prime numbers in its computation.
encryption
The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext.
ephemeral key
A temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded.
GNU Privacy Guard (GPG)
Free and open-source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt data.
Hardware Security Module (HSM)
A secure cryptographic processor.
hash
An algorithm that creates a unique digital fingerprint.
Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC)
A hash function that is applied to both the key and the message.
in-band
Exchanging secure information within normal communication channels.
key
A mathematical value entered into a cryptographic algorithm to produce encrypted data.
key exchange
The process of sending and receiving secure cryptographic keys.
Message Digest (MD)
A common hash algorithm with several different versions.
Message Digest 5 (MD5)
The current version of MD.
non-repudiation
The process of proving that a user performed an action.
one-time pad (OTP)
Combining plaintext with a random key to create ciphertext that cannot be broken mathematically.
out-of-band
Exchanging secure information outside the normal communication channels.
perfect forward secrecy
Public key systems that generate random public keys that are different for each session.
plaintext
Cleartext data that is to be encrypted and decrypted by a cryptographic algorithm.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
A commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt files and messages.
private key
An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected.
private key cryptography
Cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message.
public key
An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected.
public key cryptography
Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys.
quantum cryptography
A type of asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop and
share keys.
RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD)
A hash algorithm that uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process.
RC4
An RC stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length.
RSA
The most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm.
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
A secure hash algorithm that creates more secure hash
values than Message Digest (MD) algorithms.
sponge function
A cryptographic function that applies a process on the input that has been padded with additional characters until all characters are used.
steganography
Hiding the existence of data within another type of file.
stream cipher
An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character.
symmetric cryptographic algorithm
Encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and
decrypt a message.
Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES)
A symmetric cipher that was designed to replace
DES.
Trusted Platform Module (TPM)
A chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services.
Twofish
A derivation of the Blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong.
whole disk encryption
Cryptography that can be applied to entire disks.
algorithm
Procedures based on a mathematical formula used to encrypt and decrypt the data.
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