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event that creates demands


stress disorders are categorized as _________ disorders


2 systems activated by the hypothalamus when a person is in fear

autonomic nervous system and endocrine system

2 pathways which produce arousal and fear

sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal

stress hormones


people differ with fight or flight response in _______ anxiety and _______ anxiety

trait, state

2 stress disorders

acute and posttraumatic

abnormal neurotransmitter and hormone activity which contribute to stress disorders

norepinephrine and cortisol

biological changes and damage in brain areas which contribute to stress disorders

hippocampus and amygdala

treatments for combat veterans with PTSD

drug therapy, behavioral exposure techniques, insight therapy

traditional psychophysiological disorders

ulcers, asthma, insomnia, headaches, hypertension, coronary heart disease

Using the ______________, studies have linked stressors of various kinds to a wide range of physical conditions

Social adjustment rating scale

researchers believe that stress can __________ _____________ which increases a person's susceptibility to infection

slow lymphocytes

the field of treatment that combines psychological and physical interventions to treat or prevent medical problems-

behavioral medicine

psychological treatment for physical disorders (7)

relaxation, biofeedback, meditation, hypnosis, cognitive intervention, insight therapy, support group

__________ disorders are problems that appear to be medical but are due to psychological factors...psychological factors are masquerading as physical problems


________ disorders are patterns of memory loss that are caused almost entirely by psychosocial factors rather than physical ones


2 main types of somatoform disorders

hysterical and preoccupation

3 hysterical somatoform disorders

conversion, somatization, pain

in ________ disorder a psychosocial conflict or need is converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary or sensory functioning; such as pseduoseizures


in _______ disorder, people have many long-lasting physical ailments that have little or no organic basis; also known as Briquet's syndrome


_____ disorder is a somatoform disorder associated with psychological factors when psychosocial factors play a central role in pain


______= intentionally faking an illness to achieve external gain


_______= a factitious disorder- intentionally producing or faking symptoms simply out of wish to be a patient


________ syndrome is the extreme and long-term form of a factitious disorder


2 types of preoccupation somatoform disorders

hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder

in __________ disorders people misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms

preoccupation somatoform

if the anxiety is great and the bodily symptoms are minor, a diagnosis of ______ is probably in order


in _______ disorder person becaomes deeply concerned over some imagined or minor defect in their appearance

body dysmorphic

psychodynamic theorists attribute __________ disorders to primary and secondary gain


______ gain is used to describe a hysterical symptom that keeps internal conflicts out of conscious awareness


______ gain is used to describe a hysterical symptom that futher enables people to avoid unpleasant activities or receive sympathy from others (monetary gain)


the cognitive theorists propose that hysterical disorders are a form of _________


the impact of biology on somatoform disorders can be understood through research on ________


somatoform disorders are treated through:

antidepressants and exposure and response prevention

3 types of dissociative disorders

amnesia, fugue, DID

DID symptoms are often found in cases of ________

acute or PTSD

________ or _______ dissociative amnesia is the most common type and is the loss of all memory of events occuring within a limited period

localized, circumscribed

______ dissociative amnesia is the loss of memory for some but not all events occurring within a period


_______ dissociative amnesia is the loss of memory beginning with an event but extending back in time; may lose sense of identity; may fail to recognize family and friends


______ dissociative amnesia is forgetting of both old and new info and events; quite rare


all forms of dissociative amnesia interfere primarily with _______ memory


people with dissociative _______ not only forget their personal ids but also flee to an entirely different location


3 types of relationships between subpersonalities in DID

mutually amnesic, mutually cognizant, one-way amnesic

_________ is when subpersonalities have no awareness of one another

mutually amnesic

_________ is when each subpersonality is well aware of the rest

mutually cognizant

________ is the most common pattern; some personalities are aware of others, but the awareness is not mutual

one-way amnesic

behavioral theoristis explain dissociative disorders: they are a response learned through _____________

operant conditioning

the link between state and recall is

state-dependent learning

drug therapy for dissociative amnesia and fugue


3 goals of therapy for DID

recognize the disorder, recover memories, integrating subpersonalities

_________ disorder is classified as a dissociative disorder even though it has different pattersn. the central symptom is recurrent episodes in which one's mental functioning or body feels unreal or floating


2 criteria for diagnosing unipolar depression

major depresive episode and no history of mania

2 diagnoses of unipolar depression

major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder

_________ disorder is a type of unipolar depression in which symptoms are mild but chronic, consistent symptoms for at least 2 years


when dysthymic disorder leads to major depressive disorder, the sequence is called

double depression

neurotransmitters involved in unipolar depression

low serotonin and neuropinephrine

hormones involved with unipolar depression

cortisol and melotonin

________ is a psychodynamic term which refers to the merging of his/her own identity with that of the lost person


2 main cognitive theories about unipolar depression

negative thinking and learned helplessness

______ developed the negative thinking cognitive view of unipolar depression in which there are 4 interrelated cognitive components


4 components that create unipolar depression according to the Negative Thinking view

maladaptive attitudes, cognitive triad, errors in thinking, automatic thoughts

__________ theory of cognitive depression is based on Seligman's work with lab dogs who were shocked

learned helplessness

recent versions of the learned helplessness focus on _________


____ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) which holds that men and women are equally prone to depression but that clinicians often fail to detect it in men


_________ explanation (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) holds that hormone changes trigger depression in many women

hormone explanation

______ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) suggests that women in our society experience more stress than men


_________ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) state that females in Western society are taught to seek a low body weight- goals that are unreasonable, unhealthy and ofthen unattainable

body dissatisfaction

____________ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) picks up the learned helplessness research and argues taht women may be more prone to depression because they feel less control than men over their lives


__________ explanation (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) holds that women are more likely to blame failures on lack of ability and to attribute their success to luck


______ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) holds that people who ruminate when sad are more likely to experience depression


2 criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder

manic episode, history of mania

_______ is if people experience 4 or more episodes within a one year period with bipolar disorder

rapid cycling

if a person experiences numerous episodes of hypomania and mild depressive symptoms, a diagnosis of ___________ disorder is appropriate


apparent contradiction with neurotransmitters and bipolar disorder is addressed by the ________ theory about mood disorders: low serotonin may open the door to a mood disorder and norepinephrine activity defines form disorder will take


there is a positive correlation between mania and high __________


some theorists believe that irregularities in the transport of _______ may cause biopolar disorder


_________ and _______ are brain structures that when abnormal may cause bipolar disorder

basal ganglia, cerebellum

psychodynamic therapy of unipolar depression: focus on unconscious _________ and excessive __________

grief, dependence

behavioral therapy for unipolar depression: developed by ___________ whose theory tied a person's mood to his/her life rewards


cognitive therapy for unipolar depression: developed by ________ who contributed it to negative thinking patterns


Beck's 4 phases of cognitive therapy for unipolar depression

1. increase activities 2. challenge thoughts 3. identify negative thinking basis 4. change primary attitudes

the main type of couple therapy is __________

behavioral marital therapy (BMT)

biological treatments for unipolar depressions:

ECT, antidepressants, brain stimulation

types of antidepressants

MAO inhibitors, tricyclics, second generation

MAO inhibitors work to treat unipolar depression by ___________________ of _________, thereby increasing __________

stopping the breakdown of norepinephrine, norepinephrine

MAO inhibitors are dangerous because blood pressure can rise if one eats foods with ________


Tricyclics are believed to reduce depression by _____________ thus __________ in the synapse

blocking the reuptake process, increasing NT activity

second generation antidepressants are labeled as ___________

selective serotonin reputake inhibitors (SSRIs)

________ is the mood stabilizer which is most effective for bipolar


attempts at suicide are called ________


________ defines suicide and characterizes the 4 suicide seekers


4 types of suicide seekers

seekers, initiators, ignorers, darers

death________ clearly intend to end their lives


death______ intend to end their lives because they believe that the process of death already is underway


death________ do not believe that their self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence


death______ have ambivalent feelings about death and show this in the act itself


when individuals play indirect, partial or hidden roles in their own deaths, classified in category called __________ death


_______'s sociocultural view on suicide is that the more thoroughly a person belongs to a social group, the lower the risk of suicide


_____ suicides are committed by people over whom society has little or no control


_____ suicides are committed by people who are so well integrated into their society that they intentionally sacrifice their lives for its well being


_____suicides are committed by people whose social environment fails to provide stable structures that support and give meaning to life


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