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Abnormal Psych Chapters 6-10

STUDY
PLAY
event that creates demands
stressor
stress disorders are categorized as _________ disorders
anxiety
2 systems activated by the hypothalamus when a person is in fear
autonomic nervous system and endocrine system
2 pathways which produce arousal and fear
sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal
stress hormones
corticosteriods
people differ with fight or flight response in _______ anxiety and _______ anxiety
trait, state
2 stress disorders
acute and posttraumatic
abnormal neurotransmitter and hormone activity which contribute to stress disorders
norepinephrine and cortisol
biological changes and damage in brain areas which contribute to stress disorders
hippocampus and amygdala
treatments for combat veterans with PTSD
drug therapy, behavioral exposure techniques, insight therapy
traditional psychophysiological disorders
ulcers, asthma, insomnia, headaches, hypertension, coronary heart disease
Using the ______________, studies have linked stressors of various kinds to a wide range of physical conditions
Social adjustment rating scale
researchers believe that stress can __________ _____________ which increases a person's susceptibility to infection
slow lymphocytes
the field of treatment that combines psychological and physical interventions to treat or prevent medical problems-
behavioral medicine
psychological treatment for physical disorders (7)
relaxation, biofeedback, meditation, hypnosis, cognitive intervention, insight therapy, support group
__________ disorders are problems that appear to be medical but are due to psychological factors...psychological factors are masquerading as physical problems
somatoform
________ disorders are patterns of memory loss that are caused almost entirely by psychosocial factors rather than physical ones
dissociative
2 main types of somatoform disorders
hysterical and preoccupation
3 hysterical somatoform disorders
conversion, somatization, pain
in ________ disorder a psychosocial conflict or need is converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary or sensory functioning; such as pseduoseizures
conversion
in _______ disorder, people have many long-lasting physical ailments that have little or no organic basis; also known as Briquet's syndrome
somatization
_____ disorder is a somatoform disorder associated with psychological factors when psychosocial factors play a central role in pain
pain
______= intentionally faking an illness to achieve external gain
malingering
_______= a factitious disorder- intentionally producing or faking symptoms simply out of wish to be a patient
manifesting
________ syndrome is the extreme and long-term form of a factitious disorder
Muchausen
2 types of preoccupation somatoform disorders
hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder
in __________ disorders people misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms
preoccupation somatoform
if the anxiety is great and the bodily symptoms are minor, a diagnosis of ______ is probably in order
hypochondriasis
in _______ disorder person becaomes deeply concerned over some imagined or minor defect in their appearance
body dysmorphic
psychodynamic theorists attribute __________ disorders to primary and secondary gain
somatoform
______ gain is used to describe a hysterical symptom that keeps internal conflicts out of conscious awareness
primary
______ gain is used to describe a hysterical symptom that futher enables people to avoid unpleasant activities or receive sympathy from others (monetary gain)
secondary
the cognitive theorists propose that hysterical disorders are a form of _________
communication
the impact of biology on somatoform disorders can be understood through research on ________
placebos
somatoform disorders are treated through:
antidepressants and exposure and response prevention
3 types of dissociative disorders
amnesia, fugue, DID
DID symptoms are often found in cases of ________
acute or PTSD
________ or _______ dissociative amnesia is the most common type and is the loss of all memory of events occuring within a limited period
localized, circumscribed
______ dissociative amnesia is the loss of memory for some but not all events occurring within a period
selective
_______ dissociative amnesia is the loss of memory beginning with an event but extending back in time; may lose sense of identity; may fail to recognize family and friends
generalized
______ dissociative amnesia is forgetting of both old and new info and events; quite rare
continuous
all forms of dissociative amnesia interfere primarily with _______ memory
episodic
people with dissociative _______ not only forget their personal ids but also flee to an entirely different location
fugue
3 types of relationships between subpersonalities in DID
mutually amnesic, mutually cognizant, one-way amnesic
_________ is when subpersonalities have no awareness of one another
mutually amnesic
_________ is when each subpersonality is well aware of the rest
mutually cognizant
________ is the most common pattern; some personalities are aware of others, but the awareness is not mutual
one-way amnesic
behavioral theoristis explain dissociative disorders: they are a response learned through _____________
operant conditioning
the link between state and recall is
state-dependent learning
drug therapy for dissociative amnesia and fugue
barbiturates
3 goals of therapy for DID
recognize the disorder, recover memories, integrating subpersonalities
_________ disorder is classified as a dissociative disorder even though it has different pattersn. the central symptom is recurrent episodes in which one's mental functioning or body feels unreal or floating
depersonalization
2 criteria for diagnosing unipolar depression
major depresive episode and no history of mania
2 diagnoses of unipolar depression
major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder
_________ disorder is a type of unipolar depression in which symptoms are mild but chronic, consistent symptoms for at least 2 years
dysthymic
when dysthymic disorder leads to major depressive disorder, the sequence is called
double depression
neurotransmitters involved in unipolar depression
low serotonin and neuropinephrine
hormones involved with unipolar depression
cortisol and melotonin
________ is a psychodynamic term which refers to the merging of his/her own identity with that of the lost person
introjection
2 main cognitive theories about unipolar depression
negative thinking and learned helplessness
______ developed the negative thinking cognitive view of unipolar depression in which there are 4 interrelated cognitive components
Beck
4 components that create unipolar depression according to the Negative Thinking view
maladaptive attitudes, cognitive triad, errors in thinking, automatic thoughts
__________ theory of cognitive depression is based on Seligman's work with lab dogs who were shocked
learned helplessness
recent versions of the learned helplessness focus on _________
attributions
____ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) which holds that men and women are equally prone to depression but that clinicians often fail to detect it in men
artifact
_________ explanation (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) holds that hormone changes trigger depression in many women
hormone explanation
______ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) suggests that women in our society experience more stress than men
life-stress
_________ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) state that females in Western society are taught to seek a low body weight- goals that are unreasonable, unhealthy and ofthen unattainable
body dissatisfaction
____________ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) picks up the learned helplessness research and argues taht women may be more prone to depression because they feel less control than men over their lives
lack-of-control
__________ explanation (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) holds that women are more likely to blame failures on lack of ability and to attribute their success to luck
self-blame
______ theory (multicultural theory on unipolar depression) holds that people who ruminate when sad are more likely to experience depression
rumination
2 criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder
manic episode, history of mania
_______ is if people experience 4 or more episodes within a one year period with bipolar disorder
rapid cycling
if a person experiences numerous episodes of hypomania and mild depressive symptoms, a diagnosis of ___________ disorder is appropriate
cyclothymic
apparent contradiction with neurotransmitters and bipolar disorder is addressed by the ________ theory about mood disorders: low serotonin may open the door to a mood disorder and norepinephrine activity defines form disorder will take
permissive
there is a positive correlation between mania and high __________
norepinephrine
some theorists believe that irregularities in the transport of _______ may cause biopolar disorder
ions
_________ and _______ are brain structures that when abnormal may cause bipolar disorder
basal ganglia, cerebellum
psychodynamic therapy of unipolar depression: focus on unconscious _________ and excessive __________
grief, dependence
behavioral therapy for unipolar depression: developed by ___________ whose theory tied a person's mood to his/her life rewards
Lewinsohn
cognitive therapy for unipolar depression: developed by ________ who contributed it to negative thinking patterns
Beck
Beck's 4 phases of cognitive therapy for unipolar depression
1. increase activities 2. challenge thoughts 3. identify negative thinking basis 4. change primary attitudes
the main type of couple therapy is __________
behavioral marital therapy (BMT)
biological treatments for unipolar depressions:
ECT, antidepressants, brain stimulation
types of antidepressants
MAO inhibitors, tricyclics, second generation
MAO inhibitors work to treat unipolar depression by ___________________ of _________, thereby increasing __________
stopping the breakdown of norepinephrine, norepinephrine
MAO inhibitors are dangerous because blood pressure can rise if one eats foods with ________
tyramine
Tricyclics are believed to reduce depression by _____________ thus __________ in the synapse
blocking the reuptake process, increasing NT activity
second generation antidepressants are labeled as ___________
selective serotonin reputake inhibitors (SSRIs)
________ is the mood stabilizer which is most effective for bipolar
lithium
attempts at suicide are called ________
parasuicides
________ defines suicide and characterizes the 4 suicide seekers
Shneidman
4 types of suicide seekers
seekers, initiators, ignorers, darers
death________ clearly intend to end their lives
seekers
death______ intend to end their lives because they believe that the process of death already is underway
initiators
death________ do not believe that their self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence
ignorers
death______ have ambivalent feelings about death and show this in the act itself
darers
when individuals play indirect, partial or hidden roles in their own deaths, classified in category called __________ death
subintentional
_______'s sociocultural view on suicide is that the more thoroughly a person belongs to a social group, the lower the risk of suicide
Durkheim
_____ suicides are committed by people over whom society has little or no control
egoistic
_____ suicides are committed by people who are so well integrated into their society that they intentionally sacrifice their lives for its well being
altruistic
_____suicides are committed by people whose social environment fails to provide stable structures that support and give meaning to life
anomic