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Phrase
groups of related words that lack either a subject or a verb or both
examples:
to the restaurant
walking along the beach
as long as his arm
Clause
groups of related words that have both a subject and a verb
Independent clause
forms a complete thought independently.
example:
He wants it all.
Dependent clause
not a complete thought but depends on something else to make it a statement
example:
because he wants it all
Sentence
groups of related words with a subject a verb but must make a complete statement. Have at least one independent clause and may have any number of dependent clauses.
Noun
names a person, place or thing, or an idea or quality.
examples:
Marcela, Michigan, book, freedom, intelligience
Pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun
examples:
I, you, him, our, its, theirs, one, someone, everybody
Gerund]
A form of the verb, usually ending in ing, t, or en, that is used as a noun.
Infinitive
A form of the verb starting with to. (to swim, to eat)
Subject
noun or pronoun that is doing the acting or being in a sentences. Answers the questions "Who?" or "What?" before the verb.
Complete subject
the subject and its modifiers
Predicate nominative
A noun or its substitute that follows a linking verb and restates the subject.
Subject of an infinitive
a noun that comes between the verb and the infinitive
Direct object
the direct receiver of the action in a sentence. Ask "Whom?" or "What?" after the verb.
Predicate objective/objective complement
Follows a direct object and restates it.
Indirect object
the person or thing to whom or to which, or for whom or for which, an action is done.
Object of a preposition
A noun or its substitute following a preposition
Object of a participle
A noun or its substitute following a participle
Object of a gerund
A noun or its substitute following a gerund
Object of an infinitive
Answers "What?" "Whom?" or "Where?" after an infinitive
Verb
expresses action or state of being and tells what a noun is doing or being
Predicate
a verb used as part of a sentence
Helping verbs
Am, are, be, been, being, can, could, did, do, does, had, has, have, is, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, was, were, will, would
Transitive verbs
Verbs that have a direct object that tells to what or to whom the action was done
Intransitive verbs
Verbs that do not take a direct object-- linking verbs and complete verbs
Linking verbs
Verbs that take a predicate complement--either a predicate nominative or a predicate adjective
"To be" linking verbs
Am, is, are, was, were, has been, have been, had been, shall be, will be
Linking verbs used for the five senses
Appear, feel, look, smell, sound, taste
Other linking verbs
Act, become, continue, grow, remain, seem, stay, turn, wax
Complete verbs
take neither a direct object nor a predicate complement
example:
The woman HESITATED.
Modifiers
words that describe or limit subjects, objects or verbs. They provide details
Connecting words
join together parts of a sentence
Adjective
modifies a verb by telling how many, what kind, which, or whose
Adverb
Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, generally by telling how, when, where, to what degree or extent, or how much
Interjection
Expresses an emotional outburst
Participle
A form of a verb, usually ending in ing, t, or en, that is used as an adjective. Also used in making verb tenses and progressive forms of verbs
Predicate adjective
An adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject
Noun of direct address
Modifies the sentence by naming the person to whom a statement is addressed
Appositive
A word or phrase that follows a noun or one of its substitutes and modifies it by renaming it
Prepositional phrase
consists of a preposition and the noun that follows it
Preposition
Shows the relationship between its object and something else in the sentence
Conjuction
connects words, phrases, or clauses
Coordinating conjuctions
and. but, for, nor, or, so, and yet. Used when the words, phrases, or clauses they connect are on equal rank
Correlative conjuctions
Used in pairs

As...as
Both...and
Either...or
If...then
Neither...nor
Not only...but also
Not so...as
Since...therefore
Whether...or
Subordinating conjuctions
Although, as, because, if, since, until, whether, while.
Connect two unequal parts of a sentence.
Conjunctive adverbs
Show strong logical relationship between the sentences they connect, mostly transition words.