Biology chapter 20, 14, 15

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Genetic Engineering
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Terms in this set (40)
heterozygousan organism has two different alleles for the same trait (Tt, Rr)genotypean organisms genetic makeupphenotypean organisms expressed phisical traitsmonohybrrid crossa cross invloveing the study of one characterdihybrid crossa cross intended to study two characterscodominancetwo alleles are dominant and effect the phenotype in two different but equal waysincomplete dominanceA pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.multiple alleleswhen a gene has more than two alleles (blood type)pleiotropycauses a gene to have multiple phenotypic effectsepistasisA type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited.polygenetic inheritancetwo or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristicpedigreea diagram that shows the relation between parent and offspring across two or more generationsrecessively inherited disordersrequire two copies of the defective gene for the disorder to be expressedcystic fibrosiscaused by a mutation in an allele, causes organ malfunctionTay SacsA rare inherited disease that progressively destroys nerve cellsamniocentesisneedle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysischorionic villus samplinguseing a narrow tube inserted through the cervix to suction out a tiny sample of plecenta that contains only fetal cellschromosome theory of inheritanceA basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance genegene located on a sex chromosomeDuchenne muscular dystrophyA human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.HemophiliaAn X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.barr bodyInactivated X chromosomegenetic recombinationThe production of offspring with a new combination of genes inherited from the parentsNondisjunctionthe members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis IItrisomicfertilized eggs that have received three copies of a chromosomemonosomicfertilized eggs that have received one copy of a chromosomedeletiona chromosome fragment is lost resulting in chromosome with missing genesduplicationa chromosome fragment is broke off and reattavhed to another chromosome resulting in a double dose of the geneInversionwhen a chromosome fragment breaks off and reattaches to the same spot again but backwardstranslocationwhen a deleted chromome fragment joins a nonhomologous chromosome