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32 terms

Lecture 4

STUDY
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Taxa
a group/rank of organisms (species, family, class)
taxonomy
branch of science concerned with classification
phylogeny
study of evolutionary development and diversification of a species/organism
Mitosis
type of cell division; results in 2 daughter cells identical to parents
meiosis
results in 2 daughter cells; each with 1/2 the chromosomes of parent cell
haploid
having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
diploid
containing 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Binomial nomenclature
(genus species) ex. H. Sapiens
homology
similarity due to common ancestor (descent)
analogy
similarity due to common environment
monophyletic group
an ancestor and all its descendants
paraphyletic
missing a descendent
polyphyletic
with an organism that doesn't belong
endosymbiosis
one cells swallows a prokaryote but end up living together instead of being digested
protist
term used out of convenience, not a taxonomic group; eukaryotes that arent plants, fungi, not animals
slime molds
most closely related to amoebas; phagocytosis; cytoplasmic streaming; form large aggregates; reproduce via fruiting bodies and spores; come together and form a slug
rhizaria
typically long, thin pseudopod compared to ameobas
foraminiferans
marine; pseudopods stick out and capture prey and locomotion; secrete CaCO2 test-formed major limestone deposits in ocean
radiolarians
thin, stiff pseudopods stick out of test (assist in floating and increases surface area); marine zooplankton; heterotrophs, but may form symbiotic relationship with phototrophic microbial eukaryotes (algae)
metamonads
unicellular; flagellated; symbionts (mutualistic and parasitic); no mitochondria; anaerobic; known to have been lost (evolutionary reversal); excavate
euglenids
flagellated and flexible; excavate
glaucophytes
contain small amount of peptidoglycan on inside and outside of chloroplast membrane, same as cyanobacteria
Red Algae
multicellular; marine (most are tropical); photoautotrophs; some secrete CaCO3
Green Algae
photoautotophs; diverse morphology; unicellular; marine; temporal; multicellular filaments/sheets
Ciliates
chromalveolates; possess cilia for locomotion and feeding; unicellular; aquaticl feeding: oral groove, gullet; defense: trichocysts; H20 balance: contractile vacuole
acomplexians
chromalveolates; obligate animal parasites; unicellular; complex life cycles involging multiple hosts; cause of taxoplasmosis
acomplexian
cause of malaria (#1 infectious disease; affects red blood cells; transmitted by mosquitoes)
dinoflagellates
some cause "red tide"--release neurotoxins; vertebrates most affected due to bioaccumulation
diatoms
a very important part of the phytoplankton; unicellular; photoautotroph; widely used in paleolimnology; cell walls of SiO2
diatoms
toothpaste; metal polishes; pool filters
paleolimnology
study of reconstructing past environments
oomycetes
water molds and downy mildews; once considered fungi, but contain cellulose