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apush period 7
Terms in this set (90)
closing the frontier
Census of 1890 declared that the frontier no longer existed because railroad and telegraph lines spanned the nation and the army had subdued the Indians.
alfred thayer mahan
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
A queen of Hawaii and the successor to King Kalakaua (who gave most control to the businessmen in Hawaii through a new constitution) that highly opposed control of Hawaii by the U.S. and wanted to keep the islands mainly native, reducing the power of merchants from foreign nations.
A term for sensationalistic, irresponsible journalism. Reputedly, the term is an allusion to the cartoon "The Yellow Kid" in the old New York World, a newspaper especially noted for its sensationalism.
U.S. Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898; Evidence suggests an internal explosion, however Spanish military was framed by Yellow Journalism; The incident was a catalyst for the Spanish American War
led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipinos wanted their independence from Spain and then America, after Aguinaldo was defeated the US formed the Philippine Commission with Taft as the leader; he formed a strong bond with the people and improved conditions there
A series of Supreme Court cases in 1901, in which the Court ruled that the Constitution and American laws did not all necessarily apply to colonies. Instead, Congress would decide which laws applied where, allowing the US to keep citizenship out of the grasp of the inhabitants of its new territories.
hay banau varilla treaty
John Hay and Frenchman, Bunau Varilla, negotiated the terms of building the canal and the zone for building it, Says the U.S. can build canal through Panama if they can stay independent. No Panamanian ever signed the treaty.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
pancho villa's raid
Mexican revolutionary whose assults on American citizens and territory provoked a US expedition into Mexico
A movement in the early 1900's that tried to get the government to solve social and economic problems caused by the Industrial Revolution. The first time the government really tries to regulate business practices and the economy. Step away from Laissez-faire.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committee
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
northern securities company
A railroad monopoly formed by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill which violated Sherman Antitrust Act
pure food and drug act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
meat inspection act
1906 law required federal inspection of meat sold through interstate commerce and required the Agriculture Department to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
federal reserve act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
clayton antitrust act
Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts
federal trade commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
Sixteenth (Income Tax), Seventeenth (Senators), and Nineteenth (Female Vote) Amendments. Social, political and economic reform that came as an American response to problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
schenck v. united states
Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech
espionage act of 1917
Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during WW1
sedition act of 1918
made it illegal for americans to speak disloyaly about the US government, constitution, or flag
treaty of versailles, 1919
Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
american expeditionary force
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing. Included the regular army, the National Guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
sacco and vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
national origins act
Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
1903 Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
MODEL T FORD
Henry Ford developed this model of car so that it was affordable for everyone. Its success led to an increase in the production of automobiles which stimulated other related industries such as steel, oil, and rubber. The mass use of automobiles increased the speed goods could be transported, encouraged urban sprawl and sparked real estate booms in California and Florida.
KDKA in Pittsburgh
What was the first broadcasting station, it's first broadcast was the Harding-Cox election
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
the jazz singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied
A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
..., the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
A flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Jazz, with roots from the Caribbean, Africa, and Mexico was a melting pot for ragtime syncopations, blues, and driving brass bands. Jazz dominated the liberal counter-culture in the roaring twenties. Representative of America during the Jazz Age were the flappers, young women unrestrained by past conventionalist ideas of feminine behavior. Jazz represented America's worship of youth and vitality at the turn of the century. Young musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, and Duke Ellington contributed to the integration of multi-cultural music into American Society. Jazz became the first style of American music to affect music throughout the entire world.
jelly roll morton
first composer and piano player of jazz, he was a catalyst in the transition from ragtime to jazz piano.
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
A twentieth-century American artist whose stark, precisely realistic paintings often convey a mood of solitude and isolation within common-place urban settings. Among his best-known forks are Early Sunday Morning and Nighthawks.
plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish The range of Yiddish theatre is broad: operetta, musical comedy, and satiric or nostalgic revues; melodrama; naturalist drama; expressionist and modernist plays. Satiric Plays most popular
(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world's economy due to the United State's stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.
stock market crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
smoot hawley tariff
One of Herbert Hoover's earliest efforts to protect the nation's farmers following the onset of the Great Depression. Tariff raised rates to an all-time high.
reconstruction finance corporation
Agency established in 1932 to provide emergency relief to large businesses, insurance companies, and banks.
Group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.
Roosevelt's new deal
propsed that the federal government assist in rebuilding the economy. Policies adopted and marked important shift in the role the US govt plays in economic matters and social welfare.
glass steagall act
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation.; were both reactions of the U.S. government to cope with the economic problems which followed the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
securities and exchange commission
an independent agency of the government that regulates financial markets and investment companies
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
social security act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges
When FDR started to take away some of the new deal programs recession started back up again. This proved that the new deal programs didnt "cure" the depression, they only "stopped the bleeding".
congress of industrial organizations
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
"Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated
A religious priest and demagogue who spoke over the radio and constantly contradicted himself, praising and then attacking FDR on a constant basis. When he was revealed as an anti-Semitist, his popularity fell and he resigned soon after.
new deal democratic coalition
the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1968, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period
Secretary of Labor William Doak's plan to deport illegal Mexican aliens to Mexico,
1929-1939. Nearly 2 million people of mexican decent were forced to leave the US by authorities without due process
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Immigrated to New York in 1928 and began to organize workers' union to fight working conditions. Organized a strike of pecan shellers with people such as Emma Tenayuca. Representative for United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA) in 1938. Helped organize first national meeting of El Congreso de Pueblos que Habalan Espanola.
washington naval conference
1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
good neighbor policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
(FDR) , 1941 United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
invasion of normandy
1944; "D-Day"; Eisenhower directed an assault on a beach in France; Established the second front through France
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war.
hiroshima and nagasaki
(FDR following death) nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
rosie the riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
congress of racial equality
(CORE) Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
japanese american internment
Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in internment camps because of their fear for another attack by the Japanese.
zoot suit riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
development of sonar
sound navigation that measures depth and identifying objects
mary mclLeod bethune
was an American educator and life rights leader best known for starting a private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida.
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