Historical Perspectives in Chem. Exam 3

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Explain Le Chatelier's principle, explain what Haber did and what was their Nobel Prize in
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The gold foil experiment led to the discovery of the proton, found thorium emanation, discovered the concept of half-life, and found 2 types of radiation: alpha and beta—Nobel prize for the disintegration of elements and chemistry of radioactive substances. Also made the plum pudding model. Proton means first/primary.
Timeline of discovery: Electron->Proton->Neutron
Nernst lamp, Nernst effect- Electric field is produced normal to a magnetic field and a temporary gradient. Nernst Equation, helped create the 3rd law of thermodynamics stating that as the temperature approaches 0, specific heat approaches 0 and entropy approach 0 in a perfect crystalline system. To increase cell potential: make ln neg. by inc. reactant or dec. product, dec. temp to inc. E, inc. n to inc. E.
Image: What did Nernst do, also discuss how to increase the cell potentinal in nonstandard conditions in his equation, and what was their Nobel Prize in?
What did Fredrick Soddy do, coin, also explain uses of his discovery, and what was their Nobel Prize in?Theory of Disintegration- Chemical shift resulting in new types of matter. Coined term isotope which was his Nobel Prize for studying these. Discussed application of isotopes to find geological age, nuclear energy, and weapons, medical imaging. Know how to apply equations with alpha and beta decay.What did Harold Urey do, when was his discovery found, and what was his Nobel Prize in? Also, what two amino acids should you know?Discovered isotopes of O-18,O-17, hypothesized H-2 exists, found ancient amino acids, deuterium discovered before neutron. Nobel Prize in Discovery of deuterium(Heavy hydrogen). Amino acids: Glycine and AlanineWhat did Debye do, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Applied dipole moments(know how to do), Debye's model explaining phono contribution to specific heat at low temperatures, Debye-Huckel's theory about activity coefficient only works in dilute solutions. Nobel prize for his contributions towards molecular structure. Also, know the T3 graph.What did Victor Grignard do, how does his reaction work with carboxylic acids, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Discovered organomagnesium halides, Nobel prize for Grignard reaction, Reaction works with epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, esters, but not carboxylic acids since it becomes an acid-base reaction. The grignard reagent is destroyed in the presence of moisture and oxygen.What did Haworth do and explain the difference between alpha and beta glucose, which is more stable and what was his Nobel Prize in?Explored structure of disaccharides and vitamin C. Alpha glucose has the -OH pointing down on the anomeric carbon. The Beta chair is more stable due to equatorial OH. Nobel prize for investigation on carbohydrates and vitamin C.What did Sumner do and what was his Nobel Prize in?Proved enzymes were proteins and acted as catalysts by lowering the activation energy. Nobel prize for method and crystallization of enzymes.What did Alder do, explain electron-withdrawing and donating groups and what was his Nobel Prize in?Diels-Alder reaction between a diene and dienophile due to the stable dienophile. Nobel prize in diene synthesisWhat did Glenn Seaborg do and what was his Nobel Prize in?Organized transuranium elements which are after uranium(Nobel Prize). Transmuted metal to gold (Pb->Au)What did Calvin do, when did his discovery work best, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Helped discover and understand the Calvin cycle. Cycle works best in the dark due to photorespiration focusing on O2.Explain the Calvin cycle and what CO2 does.CO2 helps makes 3-PGA and Amino acids.What did Karl Ziegler do and what his Nobel prize in?Found Ziegler-Natta catalyst, and it forms a coordinate bond. Did the Wohl-Ziegler reaction. Nobel prize for discoveries in chemistry and technology of high polymers.What did Dorothy Hodgkin do, explain the least visible atom in his work, the timeline of one of his significant structures found, a specific structure within one of his compounds, and what was their Nobel Prize in?Found crystal structures of pepsin, penicillin, and vitamin B12 which has a corrin ring. Hydrogen can't be seen due to low electron density. Penicillin is 1st discovered antibiotic. Nobel prize for structure and work in penicillin, vitamin b12 and pepsin.What did Robert Milliken do, what were the limitations of his discovery, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Milliken helped make MO theory. Limitations include larger atoms being difficult to view, it only displays ground state, and doesn't explain the shape. Bond order is (Bonding-Antibonding)/2. Also explains para/diamagnetic. Nobel Prize for work concerning chemical bonds and electronic structure of molecules.What did William Prelog do, explain the meanings of R/S, explain why NH3 doesn't exhibit chirality, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Developed Cahn-Ingod-Prelog Nomenclature that classified chiral centers with R/S, E/Z. Resolved Troger's base by separating enantiomers. R=Rectis(Right) S=Sinister(Left) NH3 has no chirality since it's rapidly interconverting.What did Gerog Wittig do, explain if E or Z conformations are more stable, know the products of his reaction, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Worked with phosphorous ylides and Wittig reaction. The E conformation is more stable. (Charge separation increase stability). Nobel prize: Use of phosphorous containing compounds.What did Linus Pauling do, explain the differences between his two theories, provide examples of sp3d, sp3d2 molecules, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Worked on the nature of chemical bond(Nobel Prize). Valence bond theory has electrons on the outer shells while in hybridization theory, the electrons are in specific orbitals. Examples of sp3d is PF5, and sp3d2 is SF6.What did Hershko do, where do proteins degrade, explain this process, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Protein's degrade in the lysosomes. Protein degradation begins with ubiquitin attaching itself to amino groups of lysine and more ubiquitin attaching itself creating a chain which are recognized and degraded by a complex. His Nobel prize was for helping display the mechanism in which proteins were degraded.What did Richard Schrock do, explain the differences between Schrock and Fischer carbenes, explain the d-orbital splitting of his catalyst, and what was his Nobel Prize in?Created the Olefin Metathesis, Fischer carbenes are pi-acceptors, use late transition metals, and have low oxidation states. Schrock carbenes are pi-donors, use early transition metals, and have high oxidation states. The d-orbital splitting of his tantalum tetraneopenthylidene catalyst was tetrahedral. His Nobel Prize was for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis.What did Henri Moissan do and what was his Nobel Prize in?Designed and developed the electric furnace and isolated Fluorine. His Nobel prize was for the isolation of Fluorine.