Alterations of Pulmonary Function

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Terms in this set (54)
Cardiac right-to left shuntsWhat is cardiac shunts which allow blood to flow from the right heart to the left?clubbingWhat is a bulbous enlargement of the end of a digit, usually painless, and common associated with diseases that cause chronic hypoxemia.HypercapniaWhat is an increased in CO2 concentration in arterial blood (increase PaCO2).hypoxemiawhat is a reduced oxygenation of arterial blood?hypoxiareduced oxygenation of cells in tissues.TrueAn abnormal ventilation-perfusion ratio is the most common cause of hypoxemiapneumothoraxThe presense of air or gas in the pleural space caused by a rupture in the visceral pleura or the parietal pleura and chest wallPrimary (spontaneous) pneumothoraxThis occurs unexpectedly in healthy individuals (usually men) between age 20 to 40 years of age.secondary pneumothoraxThis can be caused by chest trauma (e.g rib fracture or stab or bullet wound) or rupture of a bled or bulla, as occurs in emphysema or mechanical ventilationTruebleb rupture can occur during sleep, rest, and exercise. The cause of bled formation is not known.Open (communicating) pneumothoraxAir pressure in the pleural space equals barometric pressure because air that is drawn into the pleural space during inspiration is forced back out during expiration.tension pneumothoraxThe site of pleural rupture acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration. This is life-threatening condition caused by trapping of air in the pleural space.Pleural effusionThe presense of fluid in the pleural spaceTransudative effusion-watery Exudative effusion- contains high concentrations of white blood cells and plasma proteinsWhat are the type types of pleural effusions?Empyema (infected pleural effusion)The presence of microorganisms and cellular debris (pus) in the pleural space (commonly occurs in older adults and children)atelectasisThe collapse of lung tissuecompression atelectasisThis caused by external pressure exerted by a tumor, fluid, or air in the pleural space or by abdominal distention pressuring on a lung, causing alveoli to collapseabsorption atelectasisResults from removal of air from obstructed or hypoventilated alveoli or from inhalation of concentrated oxygen or anesthetic agentssurfactant impairmentresults from decreased production or inactivation of surfactantbronchiectasisThis is a persistent abnormal dilation of the bronchi.cystic fibrosis____________ is the most common cause in childrenBronchiolitisInflammatory obstruction of the small airways or bronchioles. Most common in children.pulmonary fibrosisAn excessive amount of fibrous or connective tissue in the lung. The most common form is idiophatic.smoke, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, phosgene, and nitrogen dioxide.What are the examples of toxic gases?pneumoconiosisThis represents any change in the lung caused by inhalation of inorganic dust particles. The dust of silica, asbestos, and coal are the most common causes.Allergic alveolitisThis is an inhalation of organic dust containing allergens can result in an allergic inflammatory response called extrinsic allergic alveolitis.pulmonary edemaExcess water in the lungAsthmaThis is chronic imflammatory disorder of the bronchial mucosa.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)A preventable and treatable disease with some significant extrapulmonary effects that may contribute to the severity in individual patients. This is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.Schronic bronchitisThis is defined as chronic hypersecretion of mucus and chronic productive cough for atleast 3 months of the year, for at least 2 consecutive yearsEmphysemaabnormal permanent enlargement of the gas exchange airways (acini) accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosisRespiratory Tract InfectionsThe most common cause of short-term disability in the U.S. Most (the common cold, pharyngitis, and laryngitis) involve only the upper airways. Lung usually remnind sterile.pneumoniaInfection of the lower respiratory tract caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or parasites.This tends to be caused by different organisms as compared to those acquired in the hospital (nosocomial). The most common caused is by streptococcus pneumoniae.Mycoplasma pneumoniae________ _________ is a common cause of pneumonia in young people, especially those living in group housing, such as dorms, and army barracks.influenza and respiratory syncytial virusWhat are the most common cause of viral community-acquired pneumonia in adults?Nosocomial pneumoniaThis is a frequent complication in the ICU, most often in persons placed on mechanical ventilations.acute bronchitisAcute infection or inflammation of the airways or bronchi, is usually self-limitingabscessa circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma.CavitationThe process of the abcess emptying into a broncus and cavity formationlung abscessThis is defined as necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection.Pulmonary Vascular DiseaseBlood flow through the lungs can be disrupted by disorder that: Occlude the vessels, increase pulmonary vascular resistance, and destroy the vascular bed.pulmonary embolismOcclusion of a portion of the pulmonary vascular bed by a thrombus, embolus, tissue fragment, lipids, or an air bubble.Venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and injuries to the endothelial cells that line the vesselsVichow triad- What are the three factors leading to thrombosis?