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Terms in this set (68)
stress-reduction technique using electronic equipment to measure a person's involuntary (neuromuscular and autonomic) activity and provide feedback to help the person gain a level of voluntary control over these processes
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
bad form of stress; usually high in intensity; often leads to exhaustion, fatigue, feeling burned out; associated with erosions in performance and health
good form of stress; low to moderate in intensity; associated with positive feelings, as well as optimal health and performance
fight or flight response
set of physiological reactions (increases in blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and sweat) that occur when an individual encounters a perceived threat; these reactions are produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system
general adaptaion syndrome (GAS)
Hans Selye's three-stage model of the body's physiological reactions to stress and the process of stress adaptation: alarm reaction, stage of resistance, and stage of exhaustion
made the general adaptation syndrome
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
set of structures found in both the limbic system (hypothalamus) and the endocrine system (pituitary gland and adrenal glands) that regulate many of the body's physiological reactions to stress through the release of hormones
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Conducted experiments with dogs that led to the concept of "learned helplessness"
researcher who pioneered the development of type A (high achieving, multi-taskers who are always very stressed and in a hurry.) and type B (easy going relaxed and not always in a hurry.) personality types based on how well they respond to the multiple demands of everyday life.
field that studies how psychological factors (such as stress) influence the immune system and immune functioning
primary appraisal of stress
the cognitive process that occurs when one is appraising whether an event is stressful and relevant to him or her. During this phase, a decision is made about whether the event poses a threat, will cause harm or loss, or presents a challenge.
secondary appraisal of stress
if the event or situation is perceived as harmful or threatening, individuals assess their ability to cope with the event and the resources available to deal with the stressor.
problem focused coping
all the active efforts to manage stressful situations and alter a troubled person-environment relationship to modify or eliminate the sources of stress via individual behavior
social readjustment rating scale
popular scale designed to measure stress; consists of 43 potentially stressful events, each of which has a numerical value quantifying how much readjustment is associated with the event
yerkes dodson curve
optimal motivation and performance occurs in moderate levels of stress
affective (mood) disorders
Disturbances in mood in which the person is either excessively depressed (loss of interest or pleasure) or elated (manic) or both (bipolar)
* Manic Disorder
anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear, anxiety, and avoidance of situations in which it might be difficult to escape if one experiences symptoms of a panic attack
characterized by excessive and persistent fear and anxiety, and by related disturbances in behavior
describes behaviors or feelings that deviate from the norm
Autism Spectrum Disorder
childhood disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
decreased reactivity to the environment; includes posturing and catatonic stupor
client centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
cognitive behavioral therapy
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
co-occurrence of two disorders in the same individual
an unreasonable need to behave in a certain way to prevent a feared outcome
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
did study in which healthy patients were admitted to psychiatric hospitals and diagnoses with schizophrenia; showed that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, the label, even when behavior indicates otherwise, is hard to overcome in a mental health setting
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Diathesis stress model
a diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event
behavior that is self-contradictory or inconsistent. It may include childlike silliness, purposeless behavior, unpredictable agitation, or extreme emotional reaction (e.g., laughing after a catastrophe).
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
type of biomedical therapy that involves using an electrical current to induce seizures in a person to help alleviate the effects of severe depression
cause of disease
counterconditioning technique in which a therapist seeks to treat a client's fear or anxiety by presenting the feared object or situation with the idea that the person will eventually get used to it
temporarily lose their sense of personal identity and impulsively wander or travel away from their homes or places of work. They often become confused about who they are and might even create new identities.
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
therapeutic orientation aimed at helping people become more self-aware and accepting of themselves
A system to classify and code diagnoses, symptoms, and procedures
mood stabilizer medication that works in the brain. It is approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression). Bipolar disorder involves episodes of depression and/or mania.
a lessening or absence of normal behaviors and functions related to motivation and interest, or verbal/emotional expression.
highly exaggerated ideas, perceptions, or actions that show the person can't tell what's real from what isn't. Here the word means the presence (rather than absence) of symptoms.
a persistent thought, idea, image, or impulse that is experienced as intrusive or inappropriate and results in marked anxiety, distress, or discomfort.
characterized by the tendency to experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts and urges (obsession) and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) in response to the unwanted thoughts and urges
period of extreme fear or discomfort that develops abruptly; symptoms of panic attacks are both physiological and psychological
group of DSM-5 disorders characterized by an inflexible and pervasive personality style that differs markedly from the expectations of one's culture and causes distress and impairment; people with these disorders have a personality style that frequently brings them into conflict with others and disrupts their ability to develop and maintain social relationships
French physician who worked to reform the treatment of people with mental disorder
therapeutic orientation developed by Sigmund Freud that employs free association, dream analysis, and transference to uncover repressed feelings
(also, psychodynamic psychotherapy) psychological treatment that employs various methods to help someone overcome personal problems, or to attain personal growth
experiencing a profoundly traumatic event leads to a constellation of symptoms that include intrusive and distressing memories of the event, avoidance of stimuli connected to the event, negative emotional states, feelings of detachment from others, irritability, proneness toward outbursts, hypervigilance, and a tendency to startle easily; these symptoms must occur for at least one month
rational emotive therapy
form of cognitive-behavioral therapy
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
severe disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior with symptoms that include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behavior, and negative symptoms
having thoughts of killing yourself
attributed to a force beyond scientific understanding
form of exposure therapy used to treat phobias and anxiety disorders by exposing a person to the feared object or situation through a stimulus hierarchy
argues that abnormal behavior usually involves a deviation from social norms rather than an illness
a phenothiazine anti-psychotic medication used to treat psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression, and severe behavioral problems in children.
controlled setting where individuals are reinforced for desirable behaviors with tokens (e.g., poker chip) that be exchanged for items or privileges
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
Circumstances in which a psychoanalyst develops personal feelings about a client because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist's life.
unconditional postive regard
fundamental acceptance of a person regardless of what they say or do; term associated with humanistic psychology
World Health Organization (WHO)
A group within the United Nations responsible for human health, including combating the spread of infectious diseases and health issues related to natural disasters.
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