BIO 280 UNCG test 3 lecture

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Terms in this set (66)
zoonosesdisease of animals that can be transmissible to humans (direct or indirect)reservoirsholds pathogens between infectionscarriersasymptomatic; infected individuals who infect many over timeIncubationno symptoms; time between when pathogen enters body and any symptoms ariseprodromalfirst vague symptomsacuterecognizable, severe symptomsdeclinerecognizable symptoms, less severeconvalescencesymptoms gone, strength and stamina declinesAcute diseaserapid onset, severe symptoms, crisis point, rapid recoveryChronic diseasedelayed onset, less severe symptoms, no crisis point, prolonged recoveryprimary diseaseoccur in previously healthy individualssecondary diseaseanother disease, due to immunocompromised hostsequelaesequelnosocomial diseaseacquired in health care setting, already immunocompromisedLocationlocal infection; pathogen remains at portal of entrySystemic infectionspread throughout system/ whole bodySepticemiablood infection; subsection of systemicbactermiabacteria in blood streamviremiavirus in blood streamfungemiafungi in blood streamfocal infectioninternal site of further spread; re localization of widespread pathogenendemicstable, predictableepidemic"outbreak" increase of # higher than expectedpandemic2+ continentslevel oneouter perimeter defenseslevel twowithin the wall defenseslevel threefinal defensehow pathogen attack; physical weaponsadhesins or ligandscapsules-neutralize drugs -avoid phagocytosis -delay immune system response to pathogeninvasinsmake pores on cell surfacecoagulaseforms clots - no WBC enters - localize enzyme(strepto)kinasedissolves blood clot - allows septicemiahyauronidasedissolves cell cement - between cellscollagenasebreaks down collagens - under cellssystemic infectionneed hyauronidase and collagenaseleucocidinkills WBC - pus formationM proteinprevents phagocytosis by WBChemolysinsrupture RBCToxinsaffect functionality of host tissue EXOTOXINS and ENDOTOXINSexotoxins-proteins -G+ and G- -specific cell tissue -immune responseExo: Cytotoxinsdirectly kill cellsExo: Entertoxinsaffects digestive tract (intestine)Exo: Neurotoxinsaffect nervous systembotulismflaccid paralysis; no muscle contractiontetanusrigid paralysis; muscles fail to relaxbotulism adultfood intoxicationENDO:lipids, lipid A G- systemic effects, body respondslipids- do not trigger specific immune response - no antitoxins - not denaturedENDO:decline stage, body goes into shock, diesViral Cytopathetic effectsinfected cell abnormalities visible through microscopic eye in biopsies and tissue culturesCPE: 1. syncytium formationsuper cell - adjacent cells merge into continuous cellsCPE 2. Multi-nucleatedcells contain more than one nuclearCPE 3. Inclusion bodiesdark masses, clumped organelles inside cellsCPE 4. Nucleomegalybigger nucleus inside cellsCPE 5.enlargementcells get bigger, nucleaus stays same sizeCPE 6. roundingcells go from flat to spherical