Bullying is most likely to be an example of...
a. Reactive aggression
b. Proactive aggression
c. Physical aggression
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Terms in this set (176)
A type of voluntary behavior that benefits others or promotes harmonious relations with others; can include altruism, but it can also includes behaviors with little cost to the self; examples of this can include: - Comfort distressed peers
- Make others smile or laugh
- Share
- Compliment and encourage others
- Invite others to join in
- Confront those who have done wrong, and stand up for those who have been wronged
- Admit mistakes and apologize
- Use good manners
- Break up fights and give in to avoid fights
- Be honest
- Avoid hurting others' feelings
AGE TRENDS IN PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: By what time in school does a child display a wide variety of prosocial behaviors and become so skilled at prosocial behavior that they are assigned to take care of younger children?middle schoolAGE TRENDS IN PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: By what age range does a child's prosocial behavior may extend to causes across the globe, becomes more skilled at prosocial behavior, and frequency of prosocial behavior does not increaseadolescenceWhy doesn't prosocial behavior increase?- Adults train children to inhibit prosocial impulses (e.g., "that's the teacher's job") - Antisocial models (e.g., in the media) - Improvement in regulation of emotions and impulse control - Costs of prosocial behavior become clearWhat predicts prosocial behavior?- Emotional competence and empathy - Parental responsiveness and attachment - Parents' valuing of prosocial behavior• Use of victim-centered induction - Reinforcement (tangible rewards may decrease and praise may increase) - PracticeWhat can teachers and parents do to foster prosocial behavior?- Reinforce, but not with tangible rewards - Provide models of prosocial behavior - Victim-center induction - Improve emotional competence (ie: fell and express gratitude) Improve moral reasoning - Establish warm, secure relationships - Talk about prosocial values - Help learners feel responsible for others - Provide opportunities to practicea type of behavior that disrupts the functioning of society, such as aggression and delinquencyantisocial behaviorCLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: Prosocial Students...- are more engaged in the classroom - promote the achievement of their classmates (especially at-risk classmates)Rough and tumble play is characterized by.. a. high levels of aggression b. mostly male participants c. negative outcomes for participantsb. mostly male participantsHamri is a highly rejected child. Compared to others in his class, he is likely to a. change his peer status within two years b. feel that everyone ignores him c. show behavior problems several years later d. ignore signs of hostility from other studentsc. show behavior problems several years laterHow would a behaviorist who follows Skinner promote literacy development? a. use discovery methods b. use direct instruction and reinforce correct answers c. encourage collaborative group work d. use apprenticeships in the workplaceb. use direct instruction and reinforce correct answersIn the context of emotion regulation, reappraisal refers to.. a. telling yourself to stop feeling bad b. seeking help from friends c. ruminating d. thinking about a situation in a different way, usually more positived. thinking about a situation in a different way, usually more positiveChildren of same-sex parents tend to show high rates of identification as gay or lesbian a. true b. falseb. falsePerformance approach goals primarily have to do with.. a. getting good grades b. setting goals that are specific c. mastering the skills that are being taught d. doing better than other peopled. doing better than other peopleCalvin Murphy is on a swim team. When his parents take him to out-of-town swim meets, they try to visit the local museums and historical sites. This might affect his achievement because of... a.) metacognitive growth b.) cultural mismatch c.) cultural capital d.) authoritative parentingc.) cultural capitalCultural capital refers to a.) knowledge that helps a child "get ahead" b.) money that a family earns c.) the city that is the cultural center of a region d.) knowledge of facts that might be considered triviaa.) knowledge that helps a child "get ahead"According to the family investment model, ______________ is associated with less access to cultural or financial capital that the family can "invest" in children, which leads to poorer health and a low-quality learning environment in the home.povertyWhich of the following statements is true about the effects of poverty on child development? a.) Access to cultural capital is unaffected by poverty. b.) Poverty and ethnicity are uncorrelated. c.) Poverty tends to result in low-quality home-c.) Poverty tends to result in low-quality home- learning environment.A researcher randomly assigns 50 students to two groups of 25. Group 1 is given computers and educational software to take home and use, while Group 2 is given educational workbooks to take home. Two months later, the researcher gives each group standardized achievement tests. What is the research design? a.) nonexperimental correlation b.) qualitative c.) experimental d.) clinicalc.) experimentalA researcher wants to find out whether increased hand washing causes a decreased number of illnesses among staff and children in child care. Which research design should the researcher use? a.) observational b.) non experimental correlation c.) experimental d.) behavioralb.) non-experimental correlationA researcher wants to know whether successful principals tend to be extroverted. Which research design does this imply? a.) longitudinal b.) nonexperimental correlation c.) experimental d.) behavioralb.) nonexperimental correlationA researcher wants to understand the effect of parental drug use on children. Which research design should she use? a.) qualitative b.) nonexperimental correlation c.) experimental d.) clinicalb.) nonexperimental correlationA researcher wishes to investigate how students of different ages view their parents, so he has students in grades 6, 9, and 12 fill out questionnaires. This type of research is​... a.) experimental b.) cross-sectional c.) longitudinal d.) laboratory basedb.) cross-sectionalThe reason researchers prefer to do experiments whenever possible is that experiments a.) are inexpensive and easy to conduct b.) provide detailed descriptions of behavior c.) demonstrate that one thing likely causes another d.) demonstrate formal operation thoughtc.) demonstrate that one thing likely causes anotherWhat are the three main types of research methods?Experimental Designs, Nonexperimental Correlational Designs, Qualitive Designs,What research design involve controlled experiments?Experimental DesignsWhat is an example of an experimental research design?Random Assignment-each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to the treatment or control groupDo Nonexperimental Correlation Research Designs demonstrate causation?NO!Nonexperimental Correlation Research Design deals with...Correlation coefficient or "r"What are some examples of a qualitative research design?Interviews, observations of natural behaviorI randomly assign 50 students to read a text with questions at the beginning and 50 to read it with questions at the end. Then I measure their memory of the key points of the text. What research design? a.) Qualitative b.) Experimental c.) Non-experimental d.) Longitudinalb.) ExperimentalI want to know if children who wash their hands a lot tend to be less sick. What is the research design? a.) Non-experimental b.) Qualitative c.) Experimentala.) Non-experimental; does washing their hands a lot correlate with being sick?After randomly selecting a pool of participants, each person is randomly assigned to either the control group or the experimental group. The participants in the control group consumes a drink prior to the exam that does not contain any caffeine. The participants in the experimental group consumes a drink prior to the exam that does contain caffeine. What kind of research design is this an example of?Example Of Experimential- Random Assignment Research DesignA researcher establishes that there is a relationship between f children who do indulge in violent video games tend to be more aggressive towards their friends and family. What kind of research design is this an example of?Example Of Non-Experimental Correlation Research DesignHow does social media shape body image in teenagers? How is anxiety experience around the world? What kind of research design are these examples of?Example of Qualitative Research DesignA research wishes to investigate on how men and women between the ages 12-20 to reveal similarities and differences in spending trends related to gender. What kind of research design is this an example of?Example of Qualitative- Cross-sectional Research DesignA researcher wanted to look at the change in cholesterol levels among women over 40 who walk daily for a period of 20 years. What kind of research design is this an example of?Example of Qualitative- Longitudinal Research Designeach research participant has an equal chance of being in assigned to the the treatment or control group.random assignmentnonquantitative research characterized by the researcher being the instrument of data collection (rather than a test or questionnaire). May involve observations and interviews as data.qualitative researchdata are collected from the same individuals two or more times, separated by some period of timeLongitudinal research designdata are collected at one point in time from two or more age groups to investigate age trendsCross-sectional research designa term that describes how variable A can influence variable B, while B can also influence ABi-directionalTime-on-task intervention can increase achievement.Homework intervention has a complex relationship with achievement.Retention in grade: to improve achievement some schools will have students repeat a grade, retention predicts later dropping out (worsening achievement, greater anxiety, increased disruptive behavior, and increased inattentiveness).Class size is important because some studies find that small classes are linked to achievement gains in elementary and middle grades, but some researchers find that it only affects up to 1st grade and for high-achieving students.High-stakes tests (tests used to make decisions that have educational or financial impact) have small increase in achievement but do not close the achievement gap.How do interventions listed in the book affect achievement?A form of induction that has a sound theoretical basis derived from researchPersistent persuasionAccording to a table in the text, which of the following has a negative effect size? a.) counseling interventions b.) retention in grade c.) direct instruction d.) study skills interventionsb.) retention in gradea term that describes the measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables, or the size of the difference between the treatment and control groupeffect sizeWhat does Correlation Coefficient range between?-1 and +1; 0 means no relationship between variablesa statistic that measures the relationship between two variables (r)correlation coefficientWhat is myelin? a.) a three-part brain component that includes the sending end of one neuron, the receiving end of another, and the space in between b.) a fatty substance that forms a sheath around axons c.) the fluid in the space between two neurons d.) a neurotransmitter made of dopamineb.) a fatty substance that forms a sheath around axonsWhat predicts IQ?HABITUATION!! information processing (working memory and processing speed) due to brain differences (dendrite branching and myelination;genes; heritable; home environmentA hormone that the body generates as a response to stresscortisolSleep deprivation is linked with which of the following? a.) lower rates of ADHD b.) depression c.) reduced sleep apnea d.) improved dietb.) depressionName one thing that can cause children to experience symptoms of ADHD even though they don't have ADHDsleep deprivationAn agent that harms the developing fetus; an example of this besides drugs are stress, pollutants, and illnesses;teratogensWhich group is most likely to be obese in the United States? a.) low-SES children b.) middle-SES children c.) high-SES children d.) all groups are equally likelya.) low-SES childrenA kind of theory that moves behaviorism closer towards Piaget in that children are now viewed as actively influencing their own development through mental processes—they attend to, interpret, and select which behaviors to imitate depending on attributes of the models and their own feelings of confidenceSocial cognitive theoryThe scientific study of observable behaviorBehaviorismIs negative reinforcement an act of punishment?NO!A term that refers to increasing the probability that a behavior will occur again by presenting a consequence; ie: A teacher may present learners with praise, treats, increased recess time, and good grades as _______________ __________________.Positive ReinforcementA term that refers to increasing the probability that a behavior will occur again by removing a negative or aversive stimulus; ie: seat-belt buzzers are an example of ______________ _____________________.Negative ReinforcementA type of reinforcement that occurs after every correct responseContinuous ReinforcementA type of reinforcement after some, but not all, responsesIntermittent ReinforcementA technique that means that you reinforce behaviors that are in the direction of the target behaviorShapingWhat are the costs of power assertion?-Children become less compliant. Adults using power-assertive discipline often achieve immediate compliance, which reinforces the adults' use of power assertion in the future. However, it results in less compliance over the long run. - Children do not internalize values. Even if misbehavior improves, the emotions and thoughts that are influencing that behavior do not necessarily change. Situational compliance may be achieved, but not committed compliance. - Children resent the disciplinarian. Power assertion jeopardizes the caring relationship between adult and child. How do you feel toward someone who threatens you if you don't do what they want? Children often have similar negative feelings toward those who wield power over them, just as Clint did. - Children need more and more coercion. When children are constantly threatened until they comply, they begin to ignore mild threats and comply only for stronger threats. They come to expect overt power assertion and threats before they will comply. - Children imitate the aggression of power-assertive adult models. Children who experience power-assertive discipline are more likely to be aggressive and delinquent later. This is especially a problem with corporal punishment, a subset of power-assertive discipline.A form of conditioning in which involves learning voluntary behavior through consequences, which are either reinforcing or punishing; focuses on voluntary behavior like doing homework or getting in fight; founded by B.F. SkinnerOperant ConditioningA term that refers to the consequences that reduce the probability of a behavior; it functions through presenting something or removing something; ie: a student with an office referral could function as _______________________.PunishmentProblems with punishmentsome controlling consequences undermine students' feelings of autonomy; lack of internalization; sometimes can be reinforcing which is what you don't want; negatively impact student-teacher relationshipsA term that refers to the orderly change across age in these mental processes; founded by Jean PiagetTheory of Cognitive DevelopmentWhat are the four stages of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development?Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years), Preoperational Stage (~2 years - 7 years), Concrete Operational Stage (~7 years - 11 years), Formal Operational Stage (~12 years+)A stage in Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory where children rely on senses and behavioral schemes to acquire knowledge; shown in children from birth to 2 years oldSensorimotor StageA stage in Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory where children are able to use symbolic thought, but unable to think logically, particularly to conserve or decenter; shown in children ages 2-7 years oldPreoperational StageA stage in Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory where children are able to decenter and think logically about concrete objects and experience; shown in children ages 7-11 years oldConcrete Operational StageA stage in Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory where children are able to think abstractly about hypothetical events and systemically test hypotheses. show in children/adults ages 12+Formal Operational StageWhat attributes does constructivist teaching include?constructing their own knowledge and should be encouraged to do so; instead of lecturing on facts--> teachers provide experiences, ask questions, provoke discourse, and encourage experimentation and deep thoughtA term that refers to the view that knowledge is not poured into the learners' brains, but that knowledge is constructed through social interactionSocial ConstructivismOne of Vygotsky's best known applications under social constructivism where students take turns in the teacher role; student-teacher summarizes, asks questions, clarifies, and predicts the content of a passage of text in a small group of other studentsReciprocal teachingA particular approach where teachers minimize (but do not eliminate) adult authority; instead of lecturing on facts--> provide experiences, ask questions, provoke discourse, and encourage experimentation and deep thoughtConstructivist InstructionThe distance between what learners can do independently and what they can do with the assistance of a competent otherZone of proximal development (ZPD)What predicts emotion regulation?attachment; adult response to children's emotions; adult expression of emotions (modeling); adult talk about emotions; coaching on how to cope w/ emotions; effective discipline; abuseA term that refers to the brain's control of its own information processingExecutive functionsInformation that contains small amounts of information that you are processing at a given moment; comes through your senses from what you are experiencing at that moment (ie: watching a video about the battle of the bulge) or can be retrieved from your long-term memory (ie: remembering what you know about the Battle of the Bulge); allows you to maintain some information during the processing of other informationWorking memoryThe process of putting information into long-term memoryencodingA term that involves creating associations between what you are learning and things you already know, so it requires recognizing how the new information fits with information in your long-term memoryelaborationWhy is it important to activate prior knowledge?because knowledge is organized in long-term memory as webs or networks of related information; the more connections between individual items of knowledge, the better; when items of knowledge are encoded with many connections, they are easier to retrieve because more things can activate themAn approach that stands for what do you know, what do you want to know, and what have you learnedKWL approachWhat are some effective studying strategies?working multiple problems, attending tutoring, and studying with competent friendsA type of practice that is also called distributed practice that is more effective than a practice that occurs all at one time; applies to memorizing facts and to learning conceptsSpaced practicethe general mental capability including the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, adapt, and learn quicklyintelligencethe cognitive ability and/or kids who score highly on one cognitive test tend to score highly on other tests as well"g" (traditional theory of intelligence)A type of intelligences that explains human abilities that are fairly independent, meaning that a child could be strong in some intelligences and weak in others; there are eight intelligencesGardener's Multiple intelligencesWhat are the 8 Multiple Intelligences?Linguistic, Logical/mathematical, Spatial, Musical, Bodily/kinesthetic, Naturalistic, Interpersonal, IntrapersonalWhat activities/jobs are the 8 Multiple Intelligences related to?Linguistic: poet, writer, speaker, lawyer, journalist Logical/mathematical: scientist, mathematician, engineer, computer scientist Spatial: sailor, pilot, sculptor, architect, physician, navigator, painter, chess players Musical: Musician Bodily/kinesthetic: athlete, actor, dancer, rock climber, surgeon, mechanic Naturalist: Botanist, chef, farmer, biologist, naturalist Interpersonal: Teacher, therapist, salesperson, politician Intrapersonal: Relevant to many careers or activitiesA worldwide pattern of rising intelligence scores that is applied to all racial/ethnic group; founded by James FlynnFlynn effectAre there culture free tests? Why or why not?No, because there's no such thing as a "culture-free intelligence" testWhich of the following is true of readiness tests? a.) They provide accurate information about who should start school and who should not. b.) Many have poor reliability and validity c.) They measure response to stressful situation. d.) Typical intelligence tests are often used as readiness tests.b.) Many have poor reliability and validityWhich of the following is true of breast feeding? a.) Breast milk is more difficult to digest than formula b.)Breast milk is related to improved health and slightly higher intelligence c.) Breastfeeding does not predict improved outcomes for children d.) Breastfed babies are somewhat more likely to be constipatedb.) Breast milk is related to improve health and slightly higher intelligenceWhat does IQ predict (hint: AA, LS, H, L, R)Academic Achievement, Life success, Health, Lifespan, ResilienceAre IQ tests and national achievement tests biased?they try not to be biased and have a panel that reviews tests, but sometimes things slip throughWhat score is considered an average IQ?100What is the standard deviation of IQ tests?15Which of the following is true of low birth weight children? a.) a good home environment can do little to compensate for their medical problems b.) they are typically average in size by adolescence c.) they often experience cognitive problems such as low IQ and attention deficits d.) they quickly catch up cognitively with other childrenc.) they often experience cognitive problems such as low IQ and attention deficitsA term that refers to having a high level of skill, but it is often used to refer to natural or innate ability; not just an innate attribute, but rather is a product of intense practicetalentA term that refers to having a high level of skill or knowledgeexpertiseThe practice that refers to activities that are specifically designed to increase competence and that are goal-directed; require effort and concentration; require teachers who structure the practice; analyze performance, and provide feedback; involve repetition and refinement; and are not inherently motivatingDeliberate practiceStudents are frequently screened for learning so they do not fall behind.3 tiers:tier 1: all students receive instruction and assessmenttier 2: in-class interventions for targeted low achieving studentstier 3: more intensive small group interventions for students who continue to experience low achievementResponse to Intervention Model (RTI)A reduction in attention to repeatedly presented or continuously available stimulus (the familiar stimulus), which could be a picture of a face or a checkerboard patternHabituationA phrase that refers to innate ideas, or concepts and principles that are genetically preprogrammed in the human brain; presented early, is universal in normal children, and is triggered by a normal environment; seems to be acquired effortlessly, presumable because the conceptual structures are already in the mindcore knowledgeThe discrepancy between a student's achievement and intelligence or lack of response to instruction that is effective for most other studentsLearning Disability (LD)A part of normal attachment development, peaks between 1 and 2 years of age, and then decreasesSeparation distressA part of normal attachment, in which occurs across widely diverse cultures at the same age; typically lasts several months, peaking at about 12 months, and then gradually decreasing.Stranger WarinessA deep and enduring affectionate bond that connect one person to another across time and spaceattachmentWhat did Bowlby argue about attachment?Arrgued that attachment is not just a phase of dependency to be outgrownAccording to Bowlby, attachment...-is a characteristic of the relationship; not the child -is normal -is innate with biological underpinnings-is essential to mental healthWhat did Ainsworth focus on regarding attachment?focused on differences in attachment and designed the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP)The subdiscipline of biology concerned with the study of animal behavior, helps explain attachmentEthologyA 22-minute laboratory task designed to test quality of attachment in which children under age 6 are stressed by maternal separation and stranger presenceStrange Situation Procedure (SSP)What are the four major types of insecure attachment? (hint: S, A, R, D)Secure, Avoidant, Resistant and DisorganizedA form of attachment characterized by feelings of security, open communication, and mutual delightSecure AttachmentA form of insecure attachment characterized by anxiety, emotional distancing, rejection, and angerAvoidant AttachmentA form of insecure attachment characterized by exaggerated emotions, clinginess, and intense attachment behaviorsResistant AttachmentA form of insecure attachment characterized by no coherent pattern of response to the parentDisorganized AttachmentModels that include memories and expectations of the self and others that influence whether children approach or avoid others, with either positive or hostile emotionsInternal Working Models (IWMs)Delaying what you desire in the moment in order to get something more desirable in the long term.Delay of gratificationWhat did the delay of gratification "Marshmallow" experiment consist of?preschoolers who withheld from eating the marshmallow had more self-control and were less distractible later in life; higher self-worth, self-esteem, greater ability to cope w/ stressWhat predicts self-control?cognitive abilities like intelligence and inhibitory control; practicing engaging in self-control; fatigue of self-control; attachment; religiosity; parental monitoringGoals of disciplinenot just compliance but also internalizationWhat are the two types of compliances?situational and committedWhat are the three types of discipline?Induction, Psychological control, Power assertiona type of discipline in which an adult explains the reason for rules and points out the consequences of breaking rules; more likely to result in internalization; linked to self-control and social competence; the most effective form of discipline regardless of age of the childInduction Disciplinea type of discipline in which an adult attempts to manipulate a child's behavior by expressing anger and disapproval, by withdrawing love and affecting, or by trying to make the child feel guilt; manipulates children's emotions and attempts to coerce them in a way that prevents children from developing as individuals; includes a broad array of behaviors such as ignoring the child, stating dislike for the child, or asking the child why s/he is so bad; includes frequent criticism or trying to make children feel excessive guilt; tend to have more depression and misbehavior and less self-confidencePsychological controla type of discipline in which the adult relies on power or resources to control behavior; common in schools, particularly removal of privilegesPower assertionWhat are the 2 dimensions of parenting styles?control and demanding-ness over acceptance and responsivenessWhat are the 4 parenting styles?Indifferent, Authoritarian, Indulgent, AuthoritativeA type of parenting style that is low on both control and acceptance; do not set rules for their children, nor do they show much affection, support, or responsiveness; show little interest in events at the child's school, seldom converse with the child, do not consider the child's opinion, and often do not know where their child is or who their child is with; may use a lot of harsh discipline, but also yield to their children's demands; considered neglectful; have the lowest self-control and poorest academic performance of the of the four groups; more likely to be obese; most likely to engage in delinquent behaviorIndifferent Parenting StyleA type of parenting style in which parents are high on both acceptance and control on their children; support autonomy in their children; have clear standards and high expectations for mature, polite behavior, but without taking away choice; firmly enforce rules, using commands and sanctions when necessary, but give reasons for their decisions; provide household structure; open communication between parents and children, with encouragement of verbal give-and-take; the parents are interested in what their children have to sayAuthoritative Parenting StyleA type of parenting style in which parent are high on control of their children, but low on acceptance and responsive to the child's agenda; in these types of households, rules are not discussed or negotiated; do not welcome input from their children or give reasons why something should be done; use phrases like "Because I say so"; parents tend to be more punitive than other parents, and use power-assertive discipline; children of these parents are somewhat obedient and often conform to rules set for them; they have been pressured into obedience, but may misbehave when the pressure is absent or they get older; they perform adequately in school, but they tend to lack self-confidence; are more likely to be obeseAuthoritarian Parenting StyleA type of parenting style in which parents are high on acceptance and responsiveness, but low on control of their children; have few gules governing their children's schedules; seldom discipline and avoid asserting authority or imposing restrictions on their child; children of this parenting style have relatively low self-control and poor academic performance; more likely to engage in delinquent behavior; may feel self-confident and be socially skilled; tend to be peer-oriented and involved in activities valued by adolescents but not adults, like partyingIndulgent Parenting StyleBasic emotionsUniversal, innate emotions appearing in the 1st months of life: interest, joy/happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, and fearSocial emotionscomplex emotions that emerge later than basic emotions because they require cognitive abilities like awareness that they are separate from their attachment figures, that rules exist, etc.shame, embarrassment, guilt, pride, and envyWhat is the purpose of emotions in infants?Since they cannot talk, emotions signal their needs; crying, squinting eyebrows, laughing, etc.Altering the expression of felt emotion by expressing no emotion or expressing a different emotionEmotional DissemblanceThe ability to control one's emotions; capacity to control the intensity and duration of emotionsEmotion regulationa type of disorder that involves withdrawal or sadness; the two most common in childhood are depression and anxietyInternalizing Disordera type of disorder that involves in aggression and angerExternalizing Disordera common type of internalizing disorder in which feelings of sadness are severe for at least 2 weeks, or milder but chronic.social withdrawal, poor concentration, lack of interest in school, feeling worthless, frequent crying, sleep problemsDepressionWho is most likely to be depressed?YOUTH!What are some classroom implications of emotion regulation?Talking about emotions, Being sensitive to the learners' emotions, scaffold and teach emotion regulation, create a positive classroom climate, helping depressed & anxious studentsA negative emotional reaction towards test sitatuationsTest anxietyA phrase that is caused by members of stigmatized groups to worry that they will be judged according to stereotypes and that their performance will confirm a negative stereotype; may help explain why girls get higher grades but lower test scores in "masculine" fields such as mathematicsStereotype threatA term that refers to a part of self-concept that includes ability to accurately label your sex and your feelings about your genderGender IdentityA term that refers to a part of self-concept that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group and feelings about that membershipEthnic IdentityWhat are two types of broad achievement goals? HINT: m & pMastery Goals & Performance GoalsA type of achievement goal that allows you to master a skill or topicMastery GoalA type of achievement goal that demonstrates ability by performing better than othersPerformance GoalWhat are two types of Performance Goals?Performance-approach & Performance-avoidanceA type of performance goal that is classified as the desire to perform better than others, or be the best in a groupPerformance-approach goalsA type of performance goal that is classified as the desire to avoid doing worse than others and to avoid looking dumb or incompetentPerformance-avoidance goalsA type of goal that tends to be more adaptive than performance goalsMastery goalsWhat are the 4 influences of self-efficacy?Previous experience, Vicarious experience, Verbal persuasion, Physiological reactions,A term that refers to your belief that you can accomplish some behavior; judgement about your competence; powerfully influences behavior in both the socialself-efficacyA term that refers to engaging in class learning activities because each activity itself is rewardingIntrinsic MotivationA term that refers to engaging in an activity because of a result outside the activity itself--like getting a scholarship, earning money, avoiding punishment, getting a high grade, pleasing parents, and impressing friendsExtrinsic MotivationWhat are the components of the Self-Determination Theory SDT? (HINT: A, C, and R/B)Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness/BelongingnessA type of experience that changes the way you view and experience the world; ie: architecture: see buildings differently, music: hear music differently, history: see one's community differentlyTransformative experiencea type of behavior that intended to harm anotheraggressiona proactive aggression that is intended to intimidate and humiliate; considered hostile aggressionbullyinga type of family cycle is created when negative parenting leads to aggression in a child, which causes parents to response with hostility, which causes the child to retaliate more aggressively, and so on.coercive family cycle