Cultural Anthropology Chapters 1-8, most likely will just ned 4-8

Terms in this set (118)

--Language is Unique to Humans. It encodes experience and helps engage with one another. The study of different languages shows that humans are unique and language is natural to us
--As babies we attempt to create a unique voice and communicate but are put down by our larger social groups/ the vernacular our parents use.
--Of Hockett's 16 design features of language, the most important are the 6 ^
--Linguistic Relativity Theory says that language has the power to shape the world
--Formal Language Analysis is usually subdivided into 5 main categories :Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics

--Ethnopragmatics pay attention to both specific and broad languages. It locates the meaning in routine activities which then turn grammatical features of language into resources people use in interaction.
--Different social groups generate different communicative practices. It is argued that each persons linguistic knowledge is based off of heteroglossia, which is distinct varieties within a language.

--Pidgin lang. is the study of radical negotiation of new meaning, invented by two groups coming in contact and inventing a new language usually by colonization. Usually it is very similar to the parent language and shows that social power can play a large part in language

--Language Ideologies are unwritten rules shared by members of a speech community concerned with what kind of language is valued. Develop from political, social, and cultural histories.

--Many ling. anthro's become involved in projects to revive languages or maintain dying ones. Disappear if the younger generations just learn the popular language. Reviving is complex and controversial.
--Play is a general form of behavioral openness. It is the ability to think about, speak about, and act upon the same thing in different ways
--We put a frame around things that has the message "this is play" around playful activities
--Reflexive meta-communication allows us to separate from reality and suggest that our perspective of ordinary life is only one way to view an experience and make sense of it.
--Play functions as many things including exercise, real world practice, increased creativity in children, and understanding of the real world.

--The fate of national sports teams can come to represent the nation itself. Devotion of sports fans of that National team can be a way of affirming patriotism
--When sports are translated from one culture to another, they are frequently transformed to fit the patterns appropriate to the new culture.

--Art is play that is subject to certain culturally appropriate forms and content. Different cultures will have different art.
-Art aims to exoke a holistic, aesthetic response from artists and observers. Artists succeed in this when form is is culturally appropriate and TECHNICALLY perfect in its "realization"
--Aesthetic evaluations are culturally shaped judgements.
--We recognize other art because of the family resemblance to what we call art in our own culture, although people with other cultural understandings may not have produced art on purpose, we call or view it as art by appropriation
--What we perceive as art calls into question what is authentic art

--Myths are stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way are.
--The personal experiences in them make the truthfulness of them seem self-evident
--Full understanding of a myth requires the ethnographic background.

--In studying ritual, we pay attention to not only symbols, but also how and the way it is performed
--Cultural ideas are made concrete by rituals

--Rites of Passage are rituals of moving from one social group to another. Marked by periods of separation, transition, and regression
--During transition, individuals occupy a liminal position and with this position they usually develops an intense comradeship, and a feeling of oneness with the group.
--Communitas is this feeling of oneness

--Ritual and play are complementary. Play is "let us make-believe" whereas ritual is "let us believe." Consequently, rituals frame is much more rigid than play's.
--Although Rituals overwhelming or all powerful, individuals or groups can SOMETIMES manipulate ritual forms to achieve non-traditional ends.
--People attempting to account for their experiences make use of shared cultural assumptions about how the world works. Encompassing pictures that result are called world views.

--Symbols that sum up an entire semantic domain are called summarizing symbols. Elaborating symbols, in contrast, are analytic and allow people to sort out complex and undifferentiated feelings and ideas.

--Differences in worldview derive from differences in experience that people try to explain by metaphor.
--People use at least 3 kinds of metaphors as foundations for particular world views: societal metaphors, organic metaphors, and technological metaphors.

--A single society may have members who subscribe to different world views. Knowledge, like power, is not evenly distributed throughout a society.
--More powerful individuals and groups often promote ideologies, imposing their preferred worldview on the rest of society. Those without power can resist this imposition by creating their own contrasting metaphors and constructing alternative world views.

--Anthropological studies of religion tend to focus on the social institutions and meaningful processes with which it is associated.
--People can address personalized forces symbolically and expect responses. Context w/ cosmic forces is very complex and societies have exact rituals and practices in order to contact.
--Two important religious specialists are Shamans and Priests

--Many anthro's have attempted to show the rich, coherent tapestries of symbols, and rituals that make up particular world views and demonstrate to the high degree to which world views vary from one another.
--Drastic changes in people's experience lead them to create new meaning to explain
-The ability to act on a situation implies power among someone or a group.
-Study of Social Power in human society is the domain of Political Anthro.
--In the Western Prototype of power, power should never and can never be reduced to physical force.
--Power operates according to culturally created principles. These principles are arbitrary, affected by history, and may differ from other societies

--Western thinkers generally assumed without a state, social life would be chaotic, but not impossible. They believed people as free agents would not cooperate unless forced
--Power is demonstrated by coercion and persuasion. People may submit to bigger power (usually government) because of fear, they want to, Or Quasi-Voluntary Compliance...like a social contract.
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--Antonio Gramisci and Michael Foucalt are said to have influenced the recent power studies due to their arguments (not against each other).
--Gramisci argues that coercion alone is rarely sufficient for social contract. Distinguished coercive domination from Hegemony.
-- (Hegemony practice deflects challenges to coercive power, is always an outcome of a struggle between two groups, but never is guaranteed.)
--Foucalt's view of govern-mentality is 19th cent. Western nation-states practices aimed to create and sustain peaceful and prosperous social life by exercising power over who could be counted, who's physical attributes could be measured statistically, and who's sexual reproductive behaviors could be shaped by the exercise of state power

--societies without social obligations can restrict individuals from pursuing their own self-interest due to the detriment of the group.
-- In these societies, power is seen to WTFFFFFFFFFF entity to which is gained by supplication and not coercion
--Individuals cannot be coerced but persuaded to cooperate. They're not free agents, but still have the power to resist conformity

--All humans have the power to invest the world with meaning
--Many would argue that a discussion of social power is incomplete without including how people make sense and use constraints given to them, however limited they may be.
--Rulers face the risk that their people may create new and persuasive ways to view being dominated, then organize to defend and disseminate (Spread out) themselves, create a large following, and fight to unseat the ruler.

--When Reality is bargained, elements of shared culture and history in order to persuade others of the validity of their position.
-- Often must bargain over not just what is relevant to what is agreed on tradition, but also a new version and which version to be agreed upon.
--Political debate concerns which lessons from past are relevant to present.
--Experience is transformed when disputes are settled.
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