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COMM 41 Midterm Ch. 1
Terms in this set (23)
What was the Milgram experiment?
A man who was actor, pretended to receive shocks from a participant. This was done to see if the participant would continuously shock someone just because someone of authority told him to. Ethical problems: He purposely made them feel uncomfortable by ordering them to continue. Milgram was also not prepared for the level of discomfort his participants felt.
What was the Stanford Prison Experiment?
24 students volunteered and were divided into 2 groups: prisoners and prison guards.
Discovered that a person's behavior in a role is pre-determined by the expectations and definitions of that role.
Student playing the role of the guard was harsh and unrelenting in some instances.
A collection of skills we use everyday that are necessary for our full intellectual and personal development.
The study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct or good arguments from poor arguments
A belief based solely on personal feelings rather than on reasons or facts.
Stages of students' cognitive development
1. Dualism- Typically younger students will view things as either right or wrong. They think authorities know the right answers
2. Relativism- When the authority figures don't have the right answers, everyone has a right to his or her own opinion; there are no right or wrong answers
3. Commitment- "I should not just blindly follow or oppose authority, I need to orient myself in an uncertain world and make a decision or commitment".
The process of acquiring advanced thinking and problem solving skills from infancy through adulthood.
At the dualistic stage of research, seeking out only evidence that supports your view and dismissing evidence that contradicts it
Characteristics of a good critical thinker:
- analytical skills
- effective communication
- research and inquiry skills
- flexibility and tolerance for ambiguity
- open-minded skepticism
- creative problem solving
- attention, mindfulness, and curiosity
- collaborative learning
Method of belief
A method of critical analysis in which we suspend our doubts and biases and remain genuinely open to what people with opposing views are saying
Method of doubt
A method of critical analysis in which we put aside our preconceived ideas and beliefs and begin from a position of skepticism
A form of government in which the highest power in the state is invested in the people and exercised directly by them, as is generally the case in modern democracies by their elected officials
Three-tier model of thinking
Experience- firsthand experience as well as information or empirical facts that we receive from other sources.
Interpretation- trying to make sense of our experiences
Analysis- requires that we raise our level of thinking critically examine our interpretation of an experience, as well as those of others, refusing to accept either narrow interpretation of an experience or interpretations that are too broad.
The habitual use of immature defense mechanisms when our worldviews are challenged
Types of resistance
rigid beliefs that interfere with critical analysis of our worldviews
Types of narrow mindedness
Fear of challenge
the belief that the self or individual is the center of all things
The belief in the inherent superiority of one's own group and culture
The belief that humans are the center or most significant entities of the universe
Holding two contradictory views at the same time and believing both to be true
A sense of disorientation that occurs in situations where new ideas directly conflict with a person's worldview
A sense of disorientation that occurs when the social behavior and norms of others conflict with a person's worldview
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