this serious mood disorder is characterized by cyclical periods of mania and depression
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in rodents, this is highly effective at increasing adult neurogenesisphysical activityafter several weeks of alcohol abstinence, dopamine receptor levels in the nucleus accumbens are upregulatedfalsethe dopaminergic projection from the _______ to the _____ is necessary, but not sufficient for positive reinforcement to occurventral tegmental area; nucleus accumbensinfusion of opiate drugs into the ventral tegmental area (vta) enhances dopaminergic projections from this pregion. what is the proposed mechanism of action?inhibition of the GABAergic interneurons leading to disinhibition of dopaminergic neuronswhich os the following is not considered a negative symptoms of schizophreniadelusionswhat is believed to influence the heritability of schizophreniapaternal age + mutation in the DISC1 genewhat most likely accounts for the seasonality effect seen in schizophrenia diagnoseswomen are more likely to contract a viral illness in the 2nd trimestera recognized brain abnormality seen in patients with schizophrenia is a loss of cerebral gray matter compared to healthy individualstrueatypical or 3rd generation antipsychotic drugs are classified as what type of medication in the dopaminergic system?partial agonistin the mesolimbic dopamine system of schizophrenia patients, how does an atypical antis=psychotic provide relief of positive symptomsoutcompetes excess dopamine, binds to receptor with high affinity and activates the receptor with a submaximal responseresearchers believe a combination of genetic susceptibility and abnormal prenatal development leads to a manifestation of schizophrenia after pubertytruefiguren/afiguren/afiguren/afiguren/aall dopamine receptors are classified as what receptor type?metabotropicthese proteins support neuronal growth, survival and synaptic plasticity. low levels of this protein are implicated in major depressive disorderbrain derived neurotropic factorthe effect that certain stimuli have on the behaviors that preceded thempositive reinforcementa behavior that turns off (or reduces) an aversive stimulus will be reinforcednegative reinforcementalcohol can trigger neuronal apoptosis via what receptor(s)NMDA+GABAain major depressive disorder treatment, ketamine may relieve symptoms through what mechanism?antagonizes NMDA receptors on GABAerguc neurons, disinhibiting glutamatergic neuronsbipolar II patients exhibit severe and long lasting manic episodes that often require hospitalizationfalsethere is some conflicting evidence that adult humans experience neurogenesis. in what brain region has evidence for adult neurogenesis been found?denate gyrus of the hippocampusactivity of what brain region is generally lower in people with substance abuse disorders compared to healthy controlsprefrontal cortexhabitual behaviors that develop later during substance abuse can be attributed in part to increased dopaminergic activation in what region?dorsal striatumwhat is a risk factor for substance abuse disorderlack of parental supervision, poverty, availability of drugs, aggressive behavior in childhoodwhat can dysregulate levels of brain derive neurotrophic factor in the forebrain and hippocampuscorticotrophin releasing hormonea common hypothesis explaining adolescent substance abuse states that adolescents exhibit elevated levels of risk seeking behavior due to a lack of inhibitor forebrain projections, what does the recent pushback of this hypothesis state?situational novelty and lack of experience have been misinterpreted as risky behavior, there is not a cognitive maturation issuethis animal model of drug seeking is used to understand craving and relapse in substance abuse disorderreinstatement modelexcessive CBA activation in this brain region interferes with memory taskshippocampusopiate receptors are found in what brain regionventral tegmental area, mesencephalic reticular formation, preoptic area, periaqueductal graythe negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia are most likely caused by decreased hippocampal activityfalsecorticotrophin releasing hormone is secreted by what brain region in response to stress?paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamusearly antipsychotic such as Chlorpromazine caused _______ in about 33% of patientstardive dyskinesiathe onset of schizophrenia in female aged from 40-50 might be explained by what?hypoestrogenism associated with menopausethese symptoms are primarily the opposite effects of drug being consumed and can be extremely uncomfortable and dangerouswithdrawalhow is reinstatement of drug seeking altered when a GABAergic agonist is infused into the dorsal anterior cingulate cortexreinstatement is inhibitedwhat trug trigger dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens?nicotine, alcohol, amphetamines, opiateswhat environmental influence might contribute to schizophreniathiamine deficiency, paternal tobacco use, living in an urban area, fetal oxygen deprivationtypical (or first generation) antipsychotics antagonize what receptor(s) to treat the positive symptoms of schizophreniaD1 AND D3