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Arts and Humanities
COMM 41 Midterm Ch. 5
Terms in this set (28)
A faulty argument that at first appears to be correct.
A type of mistaken reasoning in which the form of an argument itself is invalid
A type of mistaken reasoning that occurs when an argument is psychologically or emotionally persuasive but logically incorrect.
fallacy of ambiguity
Arguments that have ambiguous phrases or sloppy grammatical structure.
A key term in an argument changes meaning during the course of the argument
An argument contains a grammatical mistake, which allows more than one conclusion to be drawn
The meaning of an argument changes depending on which word or phrase in it is emphasized.
fallacy of division
An erroneous inference from the characteristics of an entire set or group about a member of that group or set.
Fallacy of division
A characteristic of an entire group is erroneously assumed to be a characteristic of each member of that group.
Fallacy of composition
A characteristic of a member of a group is erroneously assumed to be characteristic of the whole group.
fallacy of relevance
The premise is logically irrelevant, or unrelated, to the conclusion.
ad hominem fallacy
Instead of presenting a counterargument, we attack the character of the person who made the argument
appeal to force (scare tactics)
The use or threat of force in an attempt to get another person to accept a conclusion as correct.
appeal to pity
Pity is evoked in an argument when pity is irrelevant to the conclusion.
An appeal to popular opinion to gain support for our conclusion.
appeal to ignorance
The claim that something is true simply because no one has proven it false, or that something is false simply because no one has proven it true.
A generalization is made from a sample that is too small or biased.
straw man fallacy
An opponent's argument is distorted or misrepresented in order to make it easier to refute.
red herring fallacy
A response is directed toward a conclusion that is different from that proposed by the original argument
A fallacious argument that contains an assumption that is not supported by evidence
begging the question
The conclusion of an argument is simply a rewording of a premise.
inappropriate appeal to authority
We look to an authority in a field other than that under investigation.
A particular answer is presumed to an unasked question.
Responses to complex issues are reduced to an either/or choice.
questionable cause (post hoc)
A person assumes, without sufficient evidence, that one thing is the cause of another.
The faulty assumption that if certain actions are permitted, then all actions of this type will soon be permissible.
A fallacy based on the assumption that what is natural is good.
strategies for avoiding fallacies
-build your self confidence & self-esteem
-cultivate good listening skills
-avoid ambiguous/vague terms and faulty grammar
-don't be set on "winning"
-watch your body language
-adopt a position of skepticism
-know your topic
-Do not confuse the soundness of an argument with the character or circumstances of the person making the argument
Sets found in the same folder
COMM 41 Midterm Ch. 1
COMM 41 Midterm Ch. 2
COMM 41 Midterm Ch. 3
COMM 41 Midterm Ch. 4
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