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Amsco AP US History Chapter 23
Terms in this set (48)
Warren G. Hardings
President after Woodrow Wilson
a Republican who was unclear about where he stood on every issue, but he appointed able men to his cabinet (e.g. Charles Evans Hughes as Secretary of State)
Pardoned Eugene Debs
"return to normalcy."
The death of Theodore Roosevelt, combined with public disillusionment over the war, allowed the return of the conservative Republicans. Republican leadership accepted the idea of limited government regulation as an aid to stabilizing business. The regulatory commissions established in the Progressive era were now administered by
appointees who were more sympathetic to business than to the general public.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act
(1922) Federal law that raised tariff rates on manufactured goods and levied high duties on imported agricultural goods.
Bureau of the Budget
establishment by President Hardings, with procedures for all government expenditures to be placed in a single budget for Congress to review and vote on.
Harding selected a number of incompetent and dishonest men to fill important positions, including Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall and Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty. In 1924, Congress discovered that Fall had accepted bribes for granting oil leases near Teapot Dome, Wyoming. Daugherty also took bribes for agreeing not to prosecute certain criminal suspects
Harding's vice president and successor
man of few words who richly deserved the nickname "Silent Cal."
beat Democratic Party and Robert La Follette of New Progressive Party in the Election of 1924
the greatly admired former mining engineer and Food Administration leader
Appointed by President Hardings to be secretary of commerce
Coolidge declined to run for the presidency a second time. The Republicans therefore turned to an able leader with a spotless reputation, self-made millionaire and Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. He was made the Republican nominee for president.
Alfred E. Smith
Democratic nominee for president, governor of New York
As a Roman Catholic and an opponent of prohibition, Smith appealed to many immigrant voters in the cities. Many Protestants, however, were openly prejudiced against Smith
during the 1920s
unemployment was generally below 4 percent. The standard of living for most Americans improved significantly. Indoor plumbing and central heating became commonplace. The prosperity, however, was far from universal.
In 1914, Henry Ford had perfected a system for manufacturing automobiles by means of an assembly line. Instead of losing time moving around a factory as in the past,
Ford's workers remained at one place all day and performed the same simple operation over and over again at rapid speed.
When the war ended, so did farm prosperity. Farmers who had borrowed heavily to expand during the war were
now left with a heavy burden of debt. New technologies helped farmers increase their production, but productivity only served to increase their debts, as growing surpluses produced falling prices.
Most companies insisted on an open shop (keeping jobs open to nonunion workers)
Companies voluntarily offering their employees improved benefits and higher wages in order to remove the need for organizing unions
Youth expressed their rebellion against their elders' culture by dancing to this music. Brought north by African American musicians, this music became a symbol of the new and modern culture of the cities.
consumerism (autos, radio, movies)
Automobiles became more affordable. there was an average
of nearly one car per American family. In economic terms, the production of automobiles replaced the railroad industry as the key promoter of economic growth. In social terms, the automobile affected all that Americans did: shopping, traveling for pleasure etc.
The radio enabled people from one end of the country to the other to listen to the same programs
The movie industry became big in the 1920s and movie starts were idolized. The movie industry centered in Hollywood, California. Going to the movies became a national habit in cities, suburbs, and small towns.
the most celebrated hero of the decade was a young aviator who, in 1927, thrilled the nation and the entire world by flying nonstop across the Atlantic from Long Island to Paris
An Austrian psychiatrist who stressed the role of sexual repression in mental illness, led to revolt against sexual taboos
advocates of birth control
achieved growing acceptance of the use of contraceptives
A range of influences, including the changing role of women,
the Social Gospel movement, and scientific knowledge, caused large numbers of Protestants to define their faith in new ways. Modernists took a historical and critical view of certain passages in the Bible and believed they could accept
Darwin's theory of evolution without abandoning their religious faith.
Those who condemned the modernists and taught that every word of the Bible must be accepted as literally true. God created the universe in seven days.
Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson
Revivalists of the 1920s preached a fundamentalist message but did so for the first time making full use of the new instrument of mass communication, the radio. The leading radio evangelists were Billy Sunday, who drew large crowds as he attacked drinking, gambling, and dancing; and Aimee Semple McPherson, who condemned the twin evils of communism and jazz music from her pulpit in Los Angeles.
Gertrude Stein - lost generation
Scorning religion as hypocritical and bitterly condemning the sacrifices of wartime as a fraud perpetrated by money interests were the dominant themes of the leading writers of the postwar decade. This disillusionment caused the writer Gertrude Stein to call these writers a "lost generation."
F. Scott Fitzgerald
He belonged to the Lost Generation of Writers. He wrote the famous novel "The Great Gatsby" which explored the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society. Expressed disillusionment with the ideals of an earlier time and with the materialism of a business-oriented culture.
Fitzgerald took to a life of drinking
Wrote "A Farewell to Arms", "The Old Man and the Sea", and "The Sun Also Rises"; American writer and journalist; veteran of WWI, belongs to literary movement called 'The Lost Generation'
expressed his unhappiness by moving into exile in Europe.
American novelist who satirized middle-class America in his 22 works, including Babbitt (1922) and Elmer Gantry (1927). He was the first American to receive (1930) a Nobel Prize for literature. Part of the Lost Generation.
Part of the Lost Generation.
Poet - Part of the Lost Generation.
expressed his unhappiness by moving into exile in Europe.
Frank Lloyd Wright
expanded on the idea of his mentor Louis Sullivan in applying
functionalism (form follows function). Many architects followed this philosophy in building a generation of skyscrapers with little decoration
Edward Hopper and Georgia O'Keeffe
reflected their personal vision of modern American life
Black artistic movement in New York City in the 1920s, when writers, poets, painters, and musicians came together to express feelings and experiences, especially about the injustices of Jim Crow; leading figures of the movement included Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Duke Ellington, Zora Neale Hurston, and Langston Hughes.
Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, and Claude McKay.
African American poets during Harlem Renaissance; their poems about African American culture expressed a range of emotions from bitterness and resentment to joy and hope.
Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong
African American jazz musicians/singers during the Harlem Renaissance
African American blues singer
African American multitalented singer and actor
In 1916, the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was brought to Harlem from Jamaica by a charismatic immigrant, Marcus Garvey. Garvey advocated individual and racial pride for African Americans and developed political ideas of black nationalism. Going beyond the efforts of W. E. B. Du Bois, Garvey established an organization for black
separatism, economic self-sufficiency, and a back-to-Africa movement. Garvey's sale of stock in the Black Star Steamship line led to federal charges of fraud. In 1925, he was tried, convicted, and jailed. Later, he was deported to Jamaica and his movement collapsed. W. E. B. Du Bois and other African American leaders
Tennessee was one of several southern states that made it illegal to teach Darwin's theory of evolution in the public schools. To challenge the constitutionality of such laws, the American Civil Liberties Union persuaded a Tennessee biology teacher, John Scopes, to teach the theory of evolution to his high school class. For doing so, Scopes was duly arrested and brought to trial in 1925. Defending Scopes was the famous lawyer Clarence Darrow. Representing the fundamentalists was three-time Democratic candidate for president William Jennings Bryan, who testified as an expert on the Bible. In the most sensational moment of the trial, Bryan was made to look foolish by Darrow's clever questioning. Soon afterward, Bryan died of a stroke. As expected, Scopes was convicted, but the conviction was
later overturned on a technicality.
strictly prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic
beverages, including liquors, wines, and beers
Federal law enforcing the 18th Amendment-Prohibition;the Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
Rival groups of gangsters, including a Chicago gang headed by Al Capone, fought for control of the lucrative bootlegging trade. Organized crime became big business. The millions made from the sale of illegal booze allowed the gangs to expand their other illegal activities involving prostitution, gambling, and narcotics.
Most Republicans publicly supported the Prohibition. Democrats divided on the issue, with southerners supporting it and northern city politicians calling for repeal. In 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment repealing the Eighteenth was ratified
First quota act of 1921
limited immigration to 3 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation counted in the 1910 Census (a maximum of 357,000).
Second quota act in 1924
Set quotas of 2 percent based on the Census of 1890. Although there were quotas for all European and Asian nationalities, the law chiefly restricted those groups considered "undesirable" by the nativists. By 1927, the quota for all Asians and eastern and southern Europeans had been limited to 150,000, with all Japanese immigrants barred. With these acts, the traditional United States policy of unlimited immigration ended. Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt from restrictions. This fact enabled almost 500,000 Mexicans to migrate legally to the Southwest during the 1920s.
Case of Sacco and Vanzetti
A vocal minority who protested against racist and nativist prejudices rallied to the support of two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, who in 1921 had been convicted in a Massachusetts court of committing robbery and murder. Liberals protested that the two men were innocent, and that they had been accused, convicted, and sentenced to die simply because they were poor Italians and anarchists. After six years of appeals and national and international debates over the fairness of their trial, Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in 1927.
Ku Klux Klan
The new Klan directed their hostility not only against blacks but also against Catholics, Jews, foreigners, and suspected Communists. The Klan employed various methods for terrorizing and intimidating anyone targeted as "un-American." Dressed in white hoods to disguise their identity, Klan members would burn crosses and apply vigilante justice, punishing their victims with whips, tar and feathers, and even the hangman's noose. In its heyday in the early 1920s, the Klan developed strong political influence. At first, the majority of native-born white Americans appeared to tolerate the Klan. Beginning in 1923, however, investigative reports in the northern press revealed that fraud and corruption in the KKK were rife. In 1925, the leader of Indiana's Klan, Grand Dragon David Stephenson, was convicted of murder. After that, the
Klan's influence and membership declined rapidly.
Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes initiated this event.
1. Five-Power Treaty. Nations with the five largest navies agreed to maintain the following ratio with respect to their largest warships, or battleships: the United States, 5; Great Britain, 5; Japan, 3; France, 1.67; Italy, 1.67. Britain and the United States also agreed not to fortify their possessions in the Pacific, while no limit was placed on the Japanese.
2. Four-Power Treaty. The United States, France, Great Britain, and Japan agreed to respect one another's territory in the Pacific.
3. Nine-Power Treaty. All nine nations represented at the conference agreed to respect the Open Door policy by guaranteeing the territorial integrity of China.
Kellogg-Briand Treaty (1928)
American women took the lead in a peace movement which involves the signing of a treaty arranged by U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and the French foreign minister Aristide Briand. Almost all the nations of the world signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends. This international agreement would prove ineffective, however, since it (1) permitted defensive wars and (2) failed to provide for taking action against violators of the agreement.
Britain and France owed the US more than 10 billion. Germany had to pay 30 billion in reparations to the Allies.
1924 Created by Charles Dawes, a banker
U.S. banks would lend Germany huge sums to rebuild its economy and pay reparations to Britain and France. In turn, Britain and France would use the reparations money to pay their war debts to the United States. This cycle helped to ease
financial problems on both sides of the Atlantic. After the stock market crash of 1929, however, U.S. bank loans stopped and the Dawes Plan collapsed. Ultimately, Finland was the only nation to repay its war debts in full. Many Europeans resented what they saw as American greed, while Americans saw new reasons to follow an isolationist path in the 1930s
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